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研究生:柳韋安
研究生(外文):Wei-An Liu
論文名稱:台灣白粉菌分類
論文名稱(外文):Classification of powdery mildews in Taiwan
指導教授:羅南德羅南德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Roland Kirschner
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:白粉菌植物病理真菌
外文關鍵詞:Powdery mildewsPlant diseasesFungi
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台灣白粉菌分類

Classification of powdery mildews in Taiwan
柳韋安
指導教授: 羅南德 博士

摘要

白粉菌是世界上最常見的植物病原真菌之一。感染近10000種的被子植物,病斑會出現在葉、莖、花和果實,受到感染的植物葉片通常會扭曲或泛黃凋落。在型態鑑定上當寄主和白粉菌的有性世代型態是已知的情況下,通常就能比較容易鑑定種類,但目前台灣發現的白粉菌多數是無性世代所以必需利用ITS rDNA序列做進一步的分子鑑定才能更明確的鑑定物種。實驗進行到目前為止我們收集了超過53種白粉菌的樣品,來自43以上種不同寄主植物,樣品鑑定出五個屬16個不同種類的白粉菌,當中發現了一個可能是新種的白粉菌 (Golovinomyces sp. on Artemisia cf. indica),新的同物異名(E. cinnamomi = E. quercicola),四個台灣新紀錄(Pseudoidium caesalpiniacearum, Golovinomyces artemisiae, G. spadiceus, Sawadaea cf. polyfida),,兩個白粉菌宿主新紀錄(Cleome rytidosperma, Torenia fournieri),及白粉菌種類方面的宿主新紀錄 (Murraya paniculata as new host of E. quercicola, Ambrosia artemisiifolia as new host of G. spadiceus),過去Erysiphe necator 只有在Vitaceae,發現,但是本研究也在Ipomoea hederacea 和 Ipomoea triloba發現到,以及世界第一次同時在樟樹和越橘兩個不同屬的植物上發現Erysiphe quercicola。也發現一些無法用ITS序列及無性世代型態區分的白粉病,過程中也觀察到昆蟲和白粉菌之間的有趣現象,像是斜纹夜蛾的幼蟲吃白粉菌,也首次發現Illeis koebelei這個種類的瓢蟲以Fibroidium abelmoschi, Ovulariopsis broussonetiae-papyriferae, Phyllactinia cassiae-fistulae白粉菌為食。

Classification of powdery mildews in Taiwan

Wei-An Liu
Adviser: Dr. Roland Kirschner

Abstract

Powdery mildews (Ascomycota, Erysiphales) are some of the world’s most frequently encountered plant pathogenic fungi. They infect leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits of nearly 10,000 species of angiosperms. Among the economically important plants they infect are grapes, fruit trees, wheat, and many ornamentals. If host and teleomorph are known, species usually can be identified easily by morphology. In Taiwan, Erysiphales are mostly found as anamorphs which are more difficult to be identified morphologically. In this study, we collected more than 53 specimens of anamorphic Erysiphales on 43 host plants, comprising 16 species of Powdery Mildews with relationship to five teleomorph genera (Erysiphe, Golovinomyces, Phyllactinia, Podosphaera, Sawadaea), including one possibly new species (Golovinomyces sp. on Artemisia cf. indica),a new synonym (E. cinnamomi = E. quercicola), four new records for Taiwan (Pseudoidium caesalpiniacearum, Golovinomyces artemisiae, G. spadiceus, Sawadaea cf. polyfida), two new hosts records of any powdery mildew (Cleome rytidosperma, Torenia fournieri), and two new host records of certain species of powdery mildew (Murraya paniculata as new host of E. quercicola, Ambrosia artemisiifolia as new host of G. spadiceus). Erysiphe necator, hitherto known only on Vitaceae, was also found on Ipomoea hederacea and Ipomoea triloba. The synonymy of Ovulariopsis broussonetiae-papyriferae with Phyllactinia broussonetiae-kaempferi is rejected. Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)) is recorded as host of Podosphaera xanthii in Taiwan for the first time. The specimens were described with text and drawing. Altogether 30 DNA sequences were obtained from the specimens. For the first time, larvae of a moth (Spodoptera litura) were found feeding on a powdery mildew. For the first time, larvae of a moth (Spodoptera litura) were found feeding on a powdery mildew. The ladybug Illeis koebelei was first found feeding on Fibroidium abelmoschi, on Ovulariopsis broussonetiae-papyriferae, Phyllactinia cassiae-fistulae and Podosphaera xanthii on Helianthus annuus.

Contents

中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
Contents iv
Figures vii
Tables ix
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Life cycle 1
1.2 The order Erysiphales 2
1.3 History of ressarch about Erysiphales in Taiwan 3
1.5 Aims 5
2. Materials and Methods 7
2.1 Field collection 7
2.2 Preservation of fungal specimen 7
2.3 DNA isolation 7
2.3.1 Tissue Dissociation 8
2.3.2 Lysis 8
2.3.3 DNA Binding 8
2.3.4 Wash 9
2.3.5 DNA Elution 9
2.4 PCR 9
2.4.1 Material 9
2.4.2 Protocol for PCR 10
2.5 Agarose gel electrophoresis 11
2.6 Purification of PCR products 11
2.6.1 Processing PCR Amplifications 11
2.6.2 Binding of DNA 11
2.6.3 Washing 11
2.6.4 Elution 12
2.7 DNA sequencing 12
2.8 Identification 12
2.8.1 Morphological identification 12
2.8.2 Molecular identification 12
2.9 Phylogenetic analysis 13
2.10 Observations on insects 13
3. Results 14
3.1 General results 14
3.1.1 Erysiphe aquilegiae DC. on Carica papaya L. 15
3.1.2 Erysiphe cf. begoniae R.Y. Zheng &; G.Q. Chen on Begonia formosana (Hayata) Masam. 16
3.1.3 Erysiphe cf. begoniae R.Y. Zheng &; G.Q. Chen on Begonia rex hybrid. 17
3.1.4 Erysiphe izuensis (Y. Nomura) U. Braun &; S. Takam. on Rhododendron mucronatum (Blume) G. Don. 18
3.1.5 Erysiphe necator Schwein. on Ipomoea triloba L. 19
3.1.6 Erysiphe necator Schwein. on Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. 21
3.1.7 Erysiphe quercicola S. Takam. &; U. Braun on Cinnamomum camphor≡Oidium cinnamomi (J.M. Yen) U. Braun 22
3.1.8 Erysiphe quercicola S. Takam. &; U. Braun on Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. 23
3.1.9 Fibroidium abelmoschi (Thüm.) U. Braun &; Cook on Hibiscus esculentus L. 25
3.1.10 Golovinomyces artemisiae (Grev.) Heluta on Artemisia cf. indica Willd. 27
3.1.11 Golovinomyces sp. on Artemisia cf. indica Willd. 28
3.1.12 Golovinomyces spadiceus (Schwein) U. Braun &; R.T.A. Cook on Ambrosia artemisiifolia. 29
3.1.13 Podosphaera sp. on Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski. 31
3.1.14 Podosphaera sp. on Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn. (Linderniaceae) 32
3.1.15 Podosphaera sp. on Cleome rutidosperma DC. 33
3.1.16 Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun &; Shishkoff, on Momordica charantia L. 34
3.1.17 Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun &; Shishkoff on Helianthus annuus L. 35
3.1.18 Pseudoidium caesalpiniacearum (Hosag. &; U. Braun) U. Braun &; R.T.A. Cook on Bauhinia variegata L. 36
3.1.19 Pseudoidium hortensiae (Jørst.) U. Braun &; R.T.A. Cook on Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Seringe. 38
3.1.20 Pseudoidium sp. on Liquidambar formosana Hance. 39
3.1.21 Pseudoidium sp. on Pellionia radicans (Siebold &; Zuccarini) Weddell in Candolle. 40
3.1.22 Pseudoidium sp. on Elatostema sp. 41
3.1.23 Sawadaea cf. polyfida (C.T. Wei) R.Y. Zheng &; G.Q. Chen on Acer palmatum Thunb. 42
3.2. Observations on insects 43
4. Discussion 44
4.1 Asexual versus sexual stage 44
4.2 Species identification 44
4.2.1 Vital taxonomy 44
4.2.2 Microscopical characteristics 45
4.3 Host range 46
4.4 Observations on insects 47
5. References 49
6. Appendices 91









Figures
1. Erysiphe aquilegiae DC. on Carica papaya L 55
2. Erysiphe cf. begoniae R.Y. Zheng &; G.Q. Chen on Begonia formosana (Hayata) Masam…………………………………………………………………………. 56
3. Erysiphe cf. begoniae R.Y. Zheng &; G.Q. Chen on Begonia rex hybrid……….. 57
4. Erysiphe izuensis (Y. Nomura) U. Braun &; S. Takam. on Rhododendron mucronatum (Blume) G. Don 58
5. Erysiphe necator Schwein. on Ipomoea hederacea Jacq 59
6. Erysiphe necator Schwein. on Ipomoea triloba L 60
7. Erysiphe quercicola S. Takam. &; U. Braun on Cinnamomum camphora ≡ Oidium cinnamomi (J.M. Yen) U. Braun 61
8. Erysiphe quercicola S. Takam. &; U. Braun on Murraya paniculata(L.) Jack 62
9. Fibroidium abelmoschi (Thün.) U. Braun &; Cook on Hibiscus esculentus L. 63
10. Golovinomyces artemisiae (Grev.) Heluta on Artemisia cf. indica Willd 64
11. Golovinomyces sp. on Artemisia cf. indica Willd 65
12. Golovinomyces spadiceus (Berk. &; M.A. Curtis) U. Braun &; R.T.A. Cook on Ambrosia artemisiifolia 66
13. Podosphaera sp. on Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski 67
14. Podosphaera sp. on Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Fourn. (Linderniaceae) 68
15. Podosphaera sp. on Cleome rutidosperma DC 69
16. Podosphaera xanthii.on Momordica charantia L. 70
17. Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun &; Shishkoff on Helianthus annuus L. .71
18. Pseudoidium caesalpiniacearum (Hosag. &; U. Braun) U. Braun &; R.T.A. Cook on Bauhinia variegata L. 72
19. Pseudoidium hortensiae (Jørst.) U. Braun &; R.T.A. Cook on Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Seringe 73
20. Pseudoidium sp. on Elatostema sp. 74
21. Pseudoidium sp. on Liquidambar formosana Hance 75
22. Pseudoidium sp. on Pellionia radicans (Siebold &; Zuccarini) Weddell in Candolle 76
23. Sawadaea cf. polyfida (C.T. Wei) R.Y. Zheng &; G.Q. Chen, Acta microbiol. Sin. on Acer palmatum Thunb 77
24. Illeis koebelei Timberlake (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) 78
25. Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) 79
26. Analysis of ITS sequences of Phyllactinia/Ovulariopsis species on mulberry (Morus) and paper mulberry (Broussonetia) species (Moraceae) with their respective GenBank accession numbers…… 80



Tables
1. Comparison of morphological characteristics of Erysiphe diffusa, Pseudoidium caesalpiniacearum, and LWA17A (Pseudoidium caesalpiniacearum)………….81
2. Comparison of morphological characteristics of Erysiphe begonia, E. begoniae?, Erysiphe begoniicola, Pseudoidium hortensiae, LWA51A (Erysiphe begoniae on Begonia formosana ), LWA45A (Erysiphe begoniae on Begonias rex..………....82
3. Comparison of morphological characteristics of Sawadaea bicornis, Sawadaea kovaliana, Sawadaea nankinensis, Sawadaea negundinis, Sawadaea polyfida, Sawadaea tulasnei, Roki 3961(Sawadaea cf. polyfida)……………………..…..83
4. Specimen Information………………………………………………………...…..84
5. DNA identification………………………………………………………...……...87


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