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研究生:施琬諭
研究生(外文):Wan-yu Shih
論文名稱:以行為及事件相關腦電位實驗探討前瞻記憶線索出現機率對於前瞻干擾效果的影響
論文名稱(外文):The probability of the prospective memory cue presentation modulates the prospective interference effect: Behavioral and ERP studies
指導教授:鄭仕坤鄭仕坤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-kuen Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:認知與神經科學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:前瞻記憶前瞻干擾效果前瞻編碼/提取實驗派典機率事件相關腦電位
外文關鍵詞:prospective memoryprospective interference effectprospective memory encoding/retrieval paradigmprobabilityevent-related potentials
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在前瞻記憶作業中,為了履行被延遲的意圖而造成進行中的活動表現下降,稱為前瞻干擾效果。普遍認為,前瞻干擾效果反映出,為了準備提取被延遲的意圖,而從其他進行中的活動所挪用的注意力資源。本篇論文使用前瞻編碼/提取實驗派典(prospective memory encoding/retrieval paradigm),研究前瞻干擾效果如何受到前瞻記憶線索的出現機率所調控。此外,也利用事件相關腦電位實驗來研究前瞻干擾效果的神經相關。
行為實驗結果顯示,相較於前瞻記憶線索出現機率較高的情況下,機率較低時,前瞻干擾效果比較大;這暗示著,當前瞻記憶線索出現機率較低時,受試者挪用較多的注意力資源在為提取前瞻記憶做準備。在實驗三中,事件相關腦電位結果顯示,和前瞻記憶的準備歷程相關的腦電位有二:前瞻持續正向電位(PM sustained positivity)和晚期正向複合電位(late positivity complex)。每當作業中加入一個被延遲的意圖時,前瞻持續正向電位就會產生,其電位並不會受到前瞻記憶線索的出現機率所調控。另一方面,當有個被延遲的意圖需要被執行時,晚期正向複合電位就會增強,而且在前瞻記憶線索的出現機率較低時增強更多;這些結果顯示出,主要造成前瞻干擾效果的歷程和前瞻監控有關。
本研究結果指出,前瞻記憶線索的出現機率是藉由調節挪用至前瞻監控歷程的注意力資源量,進而影響前瞻干擾效果。當線索的出現機率較低時,較多的注意力資源被挪用至監控環境以察覺前瞻記憶線索,造成較大的前瞻干擾效果。

The prospective interference effect refers to the performance decline of the ongoing activities due to a delayed intention to be implemented in the prospective memory tasks. It is generally thought to reflect the recruitment of attentional resource for preparing the retrieval of the delayed intention while engaging in the ongoing activities simultaneously. This thesis investigated how the prospective interference effect is modulated by the probability of the prospective memory (PM) cue presentation using prospective memory encoding/retrieval paradigm. Furthermore, the neural correlates of the prospective interference effect were investigated using event-related potential (ERP) measures.
The behavioral results revealed that the prospective interference effect was higher in the low-probability condition than in the high-probability one, which indicated that the participants recruited more attentional resource for preparatory attentional processes when the probability of the PM cue presentation was low. The ERP results in Experiment 3 found that two ERP components, the PM sustained positivity and the late positivity complex (LPC), were associated with the preparatory processes for prospective remembering. The PM sustained positivity arose in the ongoing activity trials whenever a delayed intention was added, and its amplitude was not modulated by the probability of the PM cue presentation. On the other hand, the amplitude of the LPC was larger when there was an intention to be performed, and was larger in the low-probability condition. These results indicated that the processes underlying the prospective interference effect refer to the prospective monitoring.
The current findings suggested that the probability of the PM cue presentation influences the prospective interference effect by modulating the magnitude of the attentional resource engaged in prospective monitoring. When the probability of the PM cue presentation was low, more attentional resource were employing on monitoring the environment for the PM cue, leading higher prospective interference effect.

Table of Contents

Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vii
Table of Figures ix
Table of Tables xi
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Prospective memory 2
1.1.1. Prospective and retrospective component 3
1.1.2. Laboratory paradigms of event-based prospective memory 5
1.1.3. Prospective interference effect 8
1.2. Theories of prospective memory 8
1.2.1. The preparatory attentional and memory processes theory 9
1.2.2. The retrieval mode and target checking theory 11
1.2.3. The multi-process theory 12
1.3. Neuroimaging studies concerning prospective memory 16
1.3.1. Anterior prefrontal cortex and prospective memory retrieval 17
1.3.2. ERP studies 18
1.4. The probability of the presentation of the PM cue 20
2. Research Aims and General Methods 22
2.1. Research aims 22
2.2. General Methods 22
2.2.1. PM encoding/retrieval paradigm 23
2.2.2. Event-related potentials 26
2.3. Overview of the experiments 27
3. Experiment 1 30
3.1. Methods 32
3.2. Results 36
3.3. Discussion 40
4. Experiment 2 43
4.1. Methods 44
4.2. Results 45
4.3. Discussion 49
5. Experiment 3 51
5.1. Methods 53
5.2. Results 56
5.3. Discussion 65
6. General Discussion 67
6.1. Experimental Findings 67
6.2. Further Directions 75
6.3. Conclusions 76
References 77

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