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研究生:馬錫資
研究生(外文):Hsi-Tzu Ma
論文名稱:跟述法應用在台灣高中生英語聽力之效益研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Shadowing on the English Listening Comprehension Ability of Taiwanese Senior High School Students
指導教授:張鳳蘭張鳳蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Feng-Lan Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:140
中文關鍵詞:同步口譯跟述法英語聽力理解聽力策略教學英語聽力困難多益聽力
外文關鍵詞:simultaneous interpretationshadowingEnglish listening comprehensionlistening strategy instructionEnglish listening difficultiesTOEIC listening
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本研究旨在探討同步口譯跟述法對台灣高中生英語聽力教學之成效。研究對象為台灣中部某高中二年級兩個班共78 位學生,分別組成實驗組(38 人)及對照組(40 人)。實驗共歷時十週,除兩週分別進行前後測外,其餘每週兩組各利用一堂課時間使用相同的教材進行聽力練習,唯一的差別在於只有實驗組接受跟述法教學。研究工具包括多益聽力測驗、跟述教材、實驗前後問卷。量性資料進行描述統計、t 檢定、卡方測定、單因子變異數分析和麥內瑪關聯樣本檢定;質性資料進行深入分析探討。
研究結果顯示,實驗組與對照組在後測表現的進步狀況皆達顯著差異。然而,實驗組的進步幅度明顯大於對照組,顯示跟述法可能有助於增進學習者的聽力理解能力。此外,研究對象認為跟述法可改善部分聽力困難。整體而言,質性分析與量性結果相呼應。
根據本研究結果指出五點跟述法聽力教學建議。第一,建議跟述法可納入課程中作為聽力技巧訓練的一環,以提升學生聽力程度。第二,建議教師可提升專業能力,以其增進聽力教學之效益。第三,單字教學可融入跟述教學中,以協助學生克服單字不足之瓶頸。第四,跟述法可結合口說或閱讀活動,以全面提升學生的英語能力。第五,建議教師提供多元化的跟述教材,以促進學生對於聽力學習的內在學習動機。
The present study aimed to explore the effect of shadowing instruction on English listening comprehension ability of Taiwanese senior high school students. The participants included 78 students in two sophomore classes of a senior high school in central Taiwan, respectively divided into a treatment group (n=38) and a control group (n=40). The experiment lasted ten weeks, with two weeks distributed to pre- and post-tests and eight weeks to listening training. Both groups spent one class period (50 minutes) each week using the same materials to practice listening; the only difference between the two groups was that the treatment group received shadowing instruction while the control group did not. The instruments involved TOEIC listening mock tests, shadowing materials, as well as pre- and post-experiment questionnaires. The quantitative data were analysed by means of descriptive statistics, t-tests, Chi-square test, ANOVA, and McNemar test; the qualitative data were transcribed verbatim for further discussion.
The results showed that both groups made significant improvement on the post-test. The treatment group made statistically greater improvement than the control group, which supported the positive role of shadowing on learners’ listening comprehension. In addition, the participants perceived shadowing to be helpful in reducing some of their listening difficulties. All in all, the qualitative analyses were the counterpart of the quantitative results.
Based on the results of the study, five pedagogical implications for shadowing instruction were provided. Firstly, shadowing is recommended to be incorporated into EFL classes as a training technique to upgrade learners’ listening proficiency. Secondly, teachers are expected to reinforce their professionalism so as to maximize the effectiveness in teaching listening. Thirdly, vocabulary teaching can be involved in the shadowing activity to eliminate learners’ bottleneck in vocabulary insufficiency. Fourthly, shadowing practice can be merged
with speaking or reading activity to facilitate learners’ integrated English competence. Finally, multiple instructional materials should be provided to strengthen learners’ intrinsic motivation for listening.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chinese Abstract ⅰ
English Abstract ⅱ
Acknowledgements ⅳ
Table of Contents ⅴ
List of Tables ⅷ
List of Figures ⅹ

Chapter One Introduction
Background of the Study 1
Motivation of the Study 4
Purposes of the Study 5
Research Questions of the Study 6
Significance of the Study 6
Definitions of Terms 8
Organization of the Study 10

Chapter Two Literature Review
English Listening Comprehension 12
A brief overview of listening 12
Listening strategies and instruction 15
Listening strategies 15
Studies on listening strategy instruction 18
Research on listening difficulties 19
Shadowing in Simultaneous Interpretation 22
Simultaneous interpretation 22
Shadowing 24
An introduction to shadowing 24
Types of shadowing 26
Principles of choosing shadowing materials 28
The effectiveness of shadowing on language learning 30
Listening 30
Speaking 35
Reading 37
Psychological aspect 37
Application of Shadowing to Listening Comprehension 38

Chapter Three Methodology
Participants 43
Instrumentation 44
Pre-experiment questionnaire 44
Pre-test 45
Post-test 46
Shadowing materials 47
Post-experiment questionnaire 48
Procedure 50
Pre-experiment stage 51
Pre-test 52
Treatment group 52
Control group 55
Post-test 57
Post-experiment questionnaire 58
Data Analysis 59

Chapter Four Results and Discussion
Background of the Participants 61
Quantitative Results of the First Research Question 66
Quantitative Results of the Second Research Question 71
Quantitative Results and Qualitative Results of
the Third Research Question 75
The analysis of the fifteen five-point Likert
scale questions 76
The analysis of three open-ended questions 85
Summary of the Results 93

Chapter Five Conclusion
Summary of the Study 95
Pedagogical Implications 96
Limitations of the Study 98
Suggestions for Future Research 99
Conclusion 102

References 104

Appendices 115
Appendix A Chinese Version of the Consent Form 115
Appendix B English Version of the Consent Form 116
Appendix C Chinese Version of the Pre-experiment Questionnaire 117
Appendix D English Version of the Pre-experiment Questionnaire 120
Appendix E Samples of Shadowing Materials 123
Appendix F Chinese Version of the Post-experiment Questionnaire 125
Appendix G English Version of the Post-experiment Questionnaire 128
Appendix H Sample Lesson Plan of the Shadowing Instruction 131
Appendix I Transcription of the Responses to the
Three Open-ended Questions 134

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 The Definition of Listening 14
Table 2.2 O’Malley and Chamot’s Classification of Strategies 16
Table 2.3 Oxford’s Classification of Strategies 17
Table 3.1 Descriptive Statistics of Pre-test Scores 44
Table 3.2 Experiment Schedule 51
Table 4.1 Frequencies and Percentages of the Participants’ Responses to the Four Items Related to Self-evaluation of English Competence and Attitude toward English Listening 62
Table 4.2 Frequencies of the Participants’ Responses Concerning Their English Listening Training 64
Table 4.3 Frequencies of the Participants’ Responses Concerning English Listening Difficulties 66
Table 4.4 Means and Standard Deviations (in Parentheses)
of the Pre-test and Post-test 67
Table 4.5 ANOVA Results of the Experiment 67
Table 4.6 The McNemar Test Results of Listening Difficulties 71
Table 4.7 Responses to the 1st statement: shadowing helped me understand the talks 76
Table 4.8 Responses to the 2nd statement: shadowing helped me remember the information in the talks 76
Table 4.9 Responses to the 3rd statement: shadowing helped me concentrate on the talks 77
Table 4.10 Responses to the 4th statement: shadowing helped me organize the information 78
Table 4.11 Responses to the 5th statement: shadowing helped me understand difficult talks 79
Table 4.12 Responses to the 6th statement: shadowing helped me get the gist of listening text 79
Table 4.13 Responses to the 7th statement: shadowing helped me answer the questions better 80
Table 4.14 Responses to the 8th statement: though shadowing is difficult, I improved after practice 81
Table 4.15 Responses to the 9th statement: it was difficult to strike a balance between listening and shadowing 81
Table 4.16 Responses to the 10th statement: shadowing is interesting 82
Table 4.17 Responses to the 11th statement: I could listen better if I mastered shadowing 82
Table 4.18 Responses to the 12th statement: I have more confidence in listening after practicing shadowing 83
Table 4.19 Responses to the 13th statement: I am willing to keep practicing shadowing 83
Table 4.20 Responses to the 14th statement: I would love to learn more about English listening strategies 84
Table 4.21 Responses to the 15th statement: I believe that shadowing can enhance my listening comprehension 84

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 3.1 Procedure of the Experiment 50
Figure 3.2 Teaching Procedure of Shadowing Instruction of the Treatment Group in Each Class Period 55
Figure 3.3 Teaching Procedure of Listening practice of the Control Group in Each Class Period 57
Figure 4.1 The Graphic Presentation of the GROUP × TEST Interaction 68
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