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研究生:陳信閔
論文名稱:作戲亦作人:以高夫曼暨辯證劇場之觀點論《亨利六世》
論文名稱(外文):Playing Social Roles or Making New Ones: Goffmanian and Brechtian Readings on Henry VI
指導教授:儲湘君 博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Hsiang-chun Chu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:歷史劇辯證劇場亨利六世框架理論社會角色印象管理
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本論文引用高夫曼社會互動之論述及布萊希特史詩劇場之觀點,來探討莎士比亞的《亨利六世》。主旨在於探討《亨利六世》如何運用其論述,來影響伊麗莎白時期觀眾對於社會角色之看法。本論文共分五章節。第一章首先介紹社會角色之概念及此概念於近代英國社會之意涵。接下來包括了對於歷史劇文類之討論及過去對《亨利六世》之研究。
在第二章,我分別探討高氏的社會互動及布氏的史詩劇場。在第一部分,我探討高氏在討論社會互動時運用劇場術語之用意;個體在互動情境中正如台上演員般,被賦予情境和角色,而互動關係也因個體角色扮演而有所發展。在第二部分,我詳述史詩劇場的主題、目的、手法及影響;布氏鼓勵戲劇中加入富含史詩劇場風格的表演內容,以刺激觀眾對演出作更深層的思考。
第三章從《亨利六世》中朝臣的互動關係探討亨利六世的權力式微。分析的結果顯示朝臣對情境定義之歧見和對角色分配之不滿為政治衝突的根源;然而,更糟糕的是亨利六世沒能成功地扮演他持有之社會角色,以至辱國殃民。
第四章則轉向宮庭外的劇情插曲部分,包含了令許多評論家當作奇情軼事來看待的伯爵夫人之一景,及以插科打諢的方式交織而成的凱德動亂劇情。藉此要來表明這些看似不打緊之劇情卻能發揮史詩劇之作用,幫助觀眾以辯證式觀點來看待社會角色之運作。
最後結論有兩部分:首先提出《亨利六世》宮庭劇情之部分強調個體在互動時表演技巧的重要性,以扮演好情境賦予之角色。再者,主劇情外的插曲卻又引導伊麗莎白時期觀眾反思當時社會的角色系統,終能以更人性化之態度對待個體。

This thesis adopts Erving Goffman’s notions about social interaction and Bertolt Brecht’s ideas about epic theatre to study Shakespeare’s Henry VI. I aim to explore how Henry VI alters Elizabethans’ concepts about social roles with its unconventional dramatic structure. The thesis consists of five chapters. Chapter One begins with modern critics’ ideas about social roles and dissects how early modern Englishmen viewed the social roles. Parts that follow are a brief discussion on the genre—history play—and a review of past studies on Henry VI.
In Chapter Two, I review Goffman’s ideas about social interaction and Brecht’s epic theatre respectively. About Goffmanian discourse, I focus on the dramaturgical terms Goffman uses to discuss interactions among social beings—front stage, back stage, cues, and so on. It results an understanding that anyone in an immediate contact with others is somehow given a situation to participate in and a role to take; development of an interaction depends on how participants handle their role-taking duties. Considering Brecht’s epic theatre, I discuss its subject-matters, purposes, techniques, and influences. The discussion shows playwrights can include epic ways of narration in their productions to bring out intended thoughts from audiences.
Chapter Three analyzes the development of Henry VI’s reign in terms of interactions among statesmen. The analysis reveals that the political conflicts stem from courtiers’ disagreement over the definition of a situation and the role distributions. Yet, most importantly, it is the king’s inability to present the ideal image of his role that endangers his country.
Chapter Four centers on subplots of the play—Countess scenes and Cade scenes—to argue that the seemingly irrelevant plots take advantage on unconventional elements to provoke Elizabethan audiences’ dialectical thoughts on social roles. In this chapter, I show how elements in Countess scenes and Cade scenes are comparable to Brecht’s epic narratives and trace how the subplots create critical audience response toward social roles.
Finally, I have two arguments. Firstly, court scenes of the play highlight the importance of one’s dramaturgical skills in fulfilling an assigned role. Second argument, however, is that Elizabethan audiences are urged by the subplots to be critical about the working of the Elizabethan role system, whose development ought to regard virtue of humanity.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT i
ABSTRACT (English) ii
ABSTRACT (Chinese) iv
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction 1
I. Introduction to Social Roles 1
II. Elizabethan Attitudes toward Social Roles 5
III. Elizabethan History Plays 8
IV. Literature Review on Henry VI 11
CHAPTER TWO: Goffmanian Concepts of Social Interaction and 16
Brechtian Epic Drama
I. Goffman’s Dramaturgical Analysis on Social Interaction 16
A. Face Work 18
B. Front 21
C. Team Works 23
D. Impression Management at Front and Back Region 23
E. Threats to Credibility of Performance 24
F. Keys to Dramaturgical Success 26
G. Conclusion 28
II. Brechtian Epic Drama 31
A. Epic Theatre: Its Origin, Progress, and Revolution 32
B. Alienating Performance of Everyday Life 34
C. Liberated Audience as Critical Thinker 38
D. Conclusion: “Are There Other Ways to Live?” 40
CHAPTER THREE: Impression Managements in Henry’s Court 41
I. A Changing Political Stage 41
A. Realignment for Courtiers without Henry V 42
B. When a Face Counts: The Beginning of Wars of the Roses 47
II. Impression Management at the Dramaturgical Palace 53
A. Making False Shows Fair and Square: Fabrications and Their Scapegoats 54
B. Death and Renaissance of Kingship: Henry’s Failure and Richard’s 61
Success in Impression Management
CHAPTER FOUR: A Dialectical Approach to Social Roles in Henry VI 75
I. Rupture of the Ongoing Events 75
A. A Future Foretold 78
B. Talbot’s Shadow 80
II. Cade’s Parody on Governance: Calling Forth the Awareness 84
toward Coercion of Social Roles
A. Comedy Show of Kingship: Serving as a Good Meal 85
B. Real Deaths by Mock Trial: A Culinary Show Becoming Sour 88
C. Only to Earn a Meal: Dialectical Outlook on Working of Social Roles 92
CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusion 95
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