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研究生:顏卉薰
研究生(外文):Huei-Hsun Yen
論文名稱:高中生英文寫作表現及寫作策略使用相關之研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigating the Relationship between EFL Senior High School Students' English Writing Performance and Writing Strategy Use
指導教授:游毓玲游毓玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Yu-ling You
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:寫作策略使用寫作表現以英語為外語的高中生
外文關鍵詞:Writing strategy usewriting performanceEFL senior high school writers
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本研究旨在探討以英語為外語之高中生寫作表現與寫作策略使用之相關性。英語寫作是表達想法及意見的一種方式,同樣也是傳達知識及訊息的一種媒介。然而,對以英語為外語的學生而言,英語寫作為四項英語技巧中最為困難的一項, (Richard &; Renandya, 2002)。由於寫作是為一項複雜的認知活動(Hyland, 1996),學者建議學生使用不同種類及大量的策略以成就其寫作任務。
在臺灣,鮮少有研究旨在探討學生寫作表現及寫作策略之關係。因此,本研究採260位高中二年級學生,以量化方式探討學生寫作表現及寫作前、中、後三階段策略使用之相關性。首先,260位受試者藉寫作測驗區分為91位較具寫作技巧者及82位較少寫作技巧者兩組。完成寫作測驗後,受試者皆填寫寫作策略問卷,旨在分析探討學生寫作表現及寫作策略使用之相關性。
研究結果顯示,較具寫作技巧者於寫作前、中、後三階段的寫作策略使用頻率與較少寫作技巧者明顯不同,而兩組差別最大在於寫作前的策略使用。第二,整體受試者之寫作表現與寫作策略使用於三階段皆呈現顯著正相關。然而,相較於兩組組內的結果顯示,學生的寫作表現及寫作策略使用並無顯著相關。也就是說,依整體學生而言,結果顯示寫作策略使用越頻繁,其寫作成績越高;但是對於較具寫作技巧者或較少寫作技巧者,該相關性並無顯著地呈現在各組內的結果中。根據量化的結果顯示,本研究主要提出以下兩點作討論,第一,以三階段的寫作策略使用而言,不同寫作技巧的學生在寫作前的策略使用顯示最為不同;第二,學生寫作表現與寫作策略使用的相關偏低。因此,根據主要的研究發現,本論文建議英語寫作教學者應教導階段性的寫作策略知識,尤其是寫作前及寫作後的策略使用。

The study intends to investigate the relationship between EFL senior high school students’ writing strategy use and writing performance. English writing is considered as a means to express one’s ideas and opinions, as well as a medium to transmit knowledge and to deliver information. Nonetheless, English writing is often perceived as a most challenging task among the four skills, especially for EFL students (Richard &; Renandya, 2002). Since writing represents a complex cognitive activity (Hyland, 1996), writers are suggested to use different types and amount of strategies to create a good writing. However, in the previous studies, the correlation between EFL writers’ writing performance and writing strategy use seems to be overlooked. This study, thus, aims to utilize a quantitative method to explore the relationship between the EFL writers’ writing performance and the writing strategies used at planning, during-writing, and reviewing stages.
A total of 260 participants from three senior high schools were included in the present study. A writing task was employed for classifying the participants into the more-skilled and the less-skilled writers. Then, they were asked to complete a writing strategy questionnaire. The written products were collected and scored by two raters. Afterwards, the data of the writing scores and writing strategy questionnaire were computed and analyzed by SPSS 20.0 for Windows.
The results showed that the more-skilled writers presented significant higher frequencies of using writing strategies at planning, during-writing, and reviewing stages than the less-skilled writers, especially the use of planning strategies. Secondly, there were significant and positive correlations between the overall participants’ writing performance and writing strategy use, but the correlations were small, according to Cohen (1988). However, in terms of each group of the writers, there were no significant correlations between their writing performance and writing strategy use. That is, for the entire participants, it was found that the more often the writing strategies were used, the higher the writing scores would be, but this correlation did not show among the more-skilled writers or among the less-skilled writers.
According to the results of the study, the researcher mainly discussed the major differences of using planning strategies between the more-skilled and the less-skilled writers, and the low correlations between students’ writing performance and writing strategy use. Based on the findings of the study, it is suggested that teaching procedural writing strategies for EFL writers is recommended, especially the planning and reviewing strategies. The limitations of the study and suggestions for the future studies are further elaborated in this study.

ABSTRACT (ENGLISH)..........i
ABSTRACT (CHINESE)..........iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............v
TABLE OF CONTENTS...........vii
LIST OF TABLES..............x
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION............1
Background of the Study.....1
Motivation of the Study.....5
Purpose of the Study........6
Research Questions..........6
Definitions of Terms........7
Significance of the Study...8
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW.......10
Theories and Models of English Writing......10
Models of L1 Writing........10
Cognitive Process Model.....10
Knowledge-telling and
Knowledge-Transforming Models.............14
Model of Writing as
Communicative Language Use................16
Writing Strategies..........18
Planning Stage.......19
During-writing Stage.20
Reviewing Stage......21
L2 Writers’ Writing Performance and Writing
Strategy Use................21
L2 Writers’ Writing Characteristics and
Difficulties................24
Writing Characteristics...24
Writing Difficulties......27
Current English Writing Instruction
in Taiwan.................. 32
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY...........35
Participants................35
Instruments.................36
A Writing Task.....................36
A Writing Strategy Questionnaire...37
Data Collection Procedures..39
Data Analysis Procedures....40
The Scoring Rubric for the Writing Task....41
The Pilot Study.............44
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS................62
The Participants’ Writing Performance.......62
Significant Differences between More-skilled and
Less-skilled Participants’ Use of Writing
Strategies..................64
The Relationships between the Participants’
Writing Performance and Writing Strategy Use..68
The Relationships between More-skilled
Writers’ Writing Strategy Use and Writing
Performance...................................71
The Relationships between Less-skilled Writers’
Writing Strategy Use and Writing Performance..73
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION.................75
Summary of the Findings.....75
Discussions.................78
Major Differences of Using Planning Strategies.78
Low Correlations between L2 Writers’ Writing
Performance and Writing Strategy Use...........79
The Highly Concern on Surface-level Correction.82
Pedagogical Implications.......................83
Limitations of the Study.......................85
Suggestions for Future Studies.................86
Conclusions....................................87
REFERENCEs.............................................88
APPENDIXES.............................................98
Appendix A Writing Strategy Questionnaire (Chinese
version).............................................98
Appendix B Writing Strategy Questionnaire (English
version).............................................100
Appendix C A Writing Task...........................102
Appendix D Writing Scoring Rubric (English version).103
Appendix E Writing Scoring Rubric (Chinese version).104
Appendix F Samples of Participants’ Writing Task....105

LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 Summary of Means and Standard Deviations for
the Writing Strategy Use at the Planning
Stage......................................48
Table 3.2 Summary of Means and Standard Deviations for
the Writing Strategy Use at the During-writing
Stage......................................49
Table 3.3 Summary of Means and Standard Deviations for
the Writing Strategy Use at the Reviewing
Stage......................................51
Table 3.4 The Correlations between Each Writing Stage and
Writing Performance........................56
Table 3.5 The Correlations between Each Planning Strategy
and Writing Performance....................57
Table 3.6 The Correlations between Each During-writing
Strategy and Writing Performance...........57
Table 3.7 The Correlations between Each Reviewing
Strategy and Writing Performance...........57
Table 4.1 Distribution of the Participants’ Writing
Performance................................63
Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics and Differences of the
Participants’ Writing Performance.........64
Table 4.3 Descriptive Statistics and T-test of Students’
Writing Strategy Use.......................65
Table 4.4 Pearson Correlations between All Students’
Writing Performance and Writing Strategy Use in
Writing Processes..........................68
Table 4.5 Pearson Correlations between More-skilled
Students’ Writing Performance and Frequencies
of Using Writing Strategies................71
Table 4.6 Pearson Correlations between Less-skilled
Students’ Writing Performance and Frequencies
of Using Writing Strategies................73

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