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研究生:賴美婷
論文名稱:3D虛擬射擊遊戲於競爭合作學習遊戲之關卡設計模式與評估-以JAVA程式設計之FPS競爭合作學習遊戲為例
論文名稱(外文):The Level Design Patterns and Evaluation of a 3D Shooting Game for Cooperation and Competition Learning - The Case of a FPS Co-op Game Based Learning for JAVA Programming
指導教授:張隆池 教授
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:競爭合作式遊戲虛擬世界學習設計模式
外文關鍵詞:Co-op Game LearningVirtual World LearningDesign Patterns
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近年來,大型多人線上角色扮演遊戲已受到教育界的關注。3D 虛 擬環境能提供活潑生動、刺激有趣以及激勵人心的學習環境,讓學習 者更有動機。而虛擬世界裡的社交活動,能豐富學習者的經驗,促進學習者與同儕間的交流,其中的競爭合作關係,更能激勵學習者沉浸於虛擬世界的學習。
隨著第一人稱射擊的競爭合作遊戲的日益普及,其所提供的多人協 同以及戰略方式,更引起學術界對於在此平台上進行教學的興趣,尤 其像是學習程式這類的正規課程,然而,市面上所有的競爭合作式遊 戲,完全沒有程式相關課程的應用。因此,本研究將以學習 JAVA 為目 標,開發一套 3D 虛擬競爭合作學習遊戲。此外,由於遊戲設計是極為繁複瑣碎的工作,為了更有效率的開發遊戲學習系統,我們亦針對第一人稱 3D 虛擬競爭合作學習遊戲提出適當的設計模式。本研究的主要目的為:(1)發展適合 3D 虛擬射擊遊戲的競爭合作學習遊戲之關卡設計模式,以供未來相關研究與發展之參考,(2)評估本研究所實作的 3D 虛擬競爭合作學習遊戲其學習成效。
在研究方法,我們首先本提出第一人稱 3D 虛擬競爭合作學習遊戲 的六種設計模式,並以遊戲設計師為訪談對象以發展更為完善的設計流程。接著我們亦邀請六十六位學生針對我們開發的 3D 虛擬競爭合作學習 JAVA 系統進行實驗。經過實際訪談、實驗以及問卷回收,研究成果顯示本研究所提出的設計模式確實能夠給予設計師在設計 3D 虛擬競爭合作學習射擊遊戲時的幫助,而實作的 JAVA 學習遊戲對於社交互動性、知識的進步以及學習成效皆有顯著的正向影響。

Abstract
MMORPGs (Massively Multi-Player Online Role-Playing Games) and
3D virtual world learning have attracted considerable attention from educational community in recent years. Virtual worlds can provide an authentic learning environment that is lively, sense of presence, motivational, engaging, fun and enjoyable to play and learn. The social nature of virtual worlds has potential to enrich students’ learning experience and allow for peer-to-peer education such as collaboration development to take place. Multi-player co-op game make players work together and let them feel more immersive in the game than playing alone.
With growing popularity of FPS co-up games that provide team coordination and strategy, it would be interesting to see how education can employ such platforms as a valuable educational tool for serious learning in programming courses. Although, they are some commercial available
on-line co-up games available, none of them can be employed for serious learning for college courses such as JAVA programming, which is considered as a difficult course among college students even for computer science related majors.
In this research, we propose an experimental study based on design, implementation and evaluation method to realize how 3D virtual world for co-op game based learning can be used to enhance learners’ motivation and playfulness for serious learning. Virtual world requires considerable effort in game level design that integrates the elements of game arts and game play. Game level design is a very time-consuming, tedious and highly iterative process. Therefore, we are more interesting to develop design patterns that can help developing co-op games for serious learning. The main purpose of this study are (1): To develop design patterns that allow developers can rapidly construct a FPS co-op game for serious learning (2) To evaluate the game world using the proposed design patterns is playable, engaging and helpful for serious learning in JAVA programming. Finally, we will develop a user study model to assess our proposed design and measure learners’ enjoyment and satisfactory to provide useful insight and implications for further development and design guidelines.
We first interviewed with several game developers about their opinions in using our proposed 6 game design patterns for co-op game based learning. Then we invite about 66 students to participate the experiment
that tests whether our designed systems that can really help them interact socially, facilitate knowledge and learning performance. The interview outcome reveals that our 6 game design patterns could provide some help for designers in developing 3D FPS Co-op game based learning. Empirical results using Statistical analysis from the questionnaires show that our system has the positive effect in social interaction, knowledge improvement and learning effectiveness.
Keywords: Co-op Game Learning, Virtual World Learning, Design Patterns

目 錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
誌 謝 v
目 錄 vi
圖索引 vii
表索引 ix
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究架構 4
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 第一人稱射擊遊戲設計模式 6
第二節 3D虛擬競爭合作學習遊戲 17
第三節 遊戲心流學習理論 26
第三章 研究方法 30
第一節 遊戲介紹 33
第二節 競爭合作學習遊戲設計模式 35
第三節 訪談設計 63
第四節 研究模型說明 64
第五節 研究假說 66
第六節 問卷設計 68
第七節 資料分析方式 69
第四章 訪談與實驗設計及分析 71
第一節 訪談設計 71
第二節 訪談分析 73
第三節 實驗設計 83
第四節 實驗資料分析 85
第五章 結論與未來研究 96
第一節 結論 96
第二節 未來研究 98
參考文獻 102
附錄 109


圖索引
圖2-1 《迷宮戰爭》遊戲 7
圖2-2 《德軍總部3D》遊戲畫面 7
圖2-3 絕對武力(Counter-Strike)遊戲多重路徑畫面 10
圖2-4 狙擊手位置 13
圖2-5 AVA戰地之王 14
圖2-6 末日之戰(Crysis Level 2 – Recovery) 15
圖2-7 Spore Creature Creator 16
圖2-8 Borderlands 2遊戲合作進行畫面 18
圖2-9 Lee等人提出之研究模型圖 19
圖2-10 Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater 27
圖2-11 Donkey Kong 27
圖3-1 實驗系統環境 31
圖3-2 系統進行流程 32
圖3-3 遊戲初始進入畫面 34
圖3-4 遊戲劇情背景介紹畫面 34
圖3-5 遊戲規則畫面 35
圖3-6 進入第一關卡並開始遊戲計時畫面 35
圖3-7 學習挑戰關卡難度設計 40
圖3-8 JAVA學習畫面 41
圖3-9 學習內容融入遊戲劇情設計的畫面 42
圖3-10 JAVA學習內容在遊戲中的呈現方式 42
圖3-11 3D關鍵字散落場景畫面 44
圖3-12 線索散落處與動態運鏡方向 44
圖3-13 取得下一關的指引與提示 45
圖3-14 再一次作答畫面 46
圖3-15 系統回饋提示 46
圖3-16 第一關路徑說明 48
圖3-17 第二關路徑說明 49
圖3-18 第三關路徑說明 50
圖3-19 第四關路徑說明 51
圖3-20 第一關障礙設置圖 53
圖3-21 第一關障礙設置圖 53
圖3-22 第一關障礙設置圖 54
圖3-23 第二關障礙設置圖 55
圖3-24 第二關障礙設置圖 55
圖3-25 第三關障礙設置圖 56
圖3-26 第三關障礙設置圖 56
圖3-27 第四關障礙設置圖 57
圖3-28 第一關機關設置畫面 59
圖3-29 第二關機關設置畫面 59
圖3-30 第二關機關設置畫面 60
圖3-31 第二關機關設置畫面 60
圖3-32 第三關機關設置畫面 61
圖3-33 第三關機關設置畫面 61
圖3-34 第四關機關設置畫面 62
圖3-35 第四關機關設置畫面 62
圖3-36 第四關機關設置畫面 63
圖3-37 系統評估架構圖 67
圖4-1 使用設計模式於關卡設計流程圖實驗流程圖 82
圖4-2 實驗流程圖 84
圖4-3 實驗A組進行合作遊戲畫面 85
圖4-4 實驗B組受測者進行合作討論學習內容畫面 85
圖4-5 四大構面之平均數 86
圖4-6 研究模型結果分析 90
圖4-7 問題一受測者回答分佈圖 94
圖4-8 問題二受測者回答分佈圖 95
圖4-9 問題三受測者回答分佈圖 95

表索引
表2-1 設計模式語言 9
表2-2 遊戲設計模式範例 10
表2-3 關卡設計方面的工作分類 12
表2-4 狙擊手位置設計模式 13
表2-5 長廊設計模式 14
表2-6 據點設計模式 15
表2-7 遊戲式學習設計模式 16
表2-8 合作學習概念 22
表2-9 競爭合作學習 25
表2-10 GameFlow與EGameFlow定義 29
表3-1 學習內容模式語言 36
表3-2 學習課程表 37
表3-3 學習內容等級定義 38-39
表3-4 學習線索模式語言 43
表3-5 學習回饋模式語言 45
表3-6 競合路徑規劃模式語言 47
表3-7 競合障礙模式語言 52
表3-8 競合機關模式語言 58
表3-9 EGameFlow因子之定義與應用 66
表3-10 本研究之問卷構面 69
表4-1 受訪者基本資料 72
表4-2 訪談大綱 73
表4-3 問題一的回答內容 74
表4-4 學習內容模式的回答內容 75
表4-5 學習線索模式的回答內容 76
表4-6 學習回饋模式的回答內容 77
表4-7 競合路徑規劃模式的回答內容 78
表4-8 競合障礙模式的回答內容 79
表4-9 競合機關模式的回答內容 80
表4-10 受訪者建議 81
表4-11 衡量模式的信度 87
表4-12 衡量模式的驗證性因素分析之收斂效度結果 88
表4-13 衡量模式的構面相關矩陣 89
表4-14 假說檢定之結果整理 92
表4-15 構面之整體效果 92



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http://s3131212.com/csgo/

Ulric Spaak(2013)。CS技能教學。
http://cs-mapping.com.ua/forum/printthread.php?t=10054&;pp=100

toby70609(2012)。AVA戰地之王場景圖。數位男女論壇。
http://bbs-mychat.com/attach/Fid_687/687_786254.jpg

pattyos115(2012) 。Crysis Level 2-Recovery影片的截圖。
http://i1.ytimg.com/vi/cs09Vavqx_E/maxresdefault.jpg

PC Gamer雜誌網(2012).The 15 best co-op games of all time.
http://www.pcgamer.com/2012/12/16/the-15-best-co-op-games-of-all-time/4/


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