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研究生:李汶誼
研究生(外文):Wen-yi Li
論文名稱:漢語科普譯文明朗化之語料庫翻譯研究:以《科學人》雜誌為例
論文名稱(外文):A Corpus-based Translation Study on Explicitation of Translated Chinese Scientific Texts: A Case Study on Scientific American
指導教授:温婷惠
指導教授(外文):Ting-hui Wen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:翻譯研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:翻譯學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:明朗化明朗化假說科普翻譯平行語料庫明朗化類型語料庫翻譯研究
外文關鍵詞:ExplicitationExplicitation HypothesisTranslated Scientific TextsParallel CorpusExplicitation PatternsCorpus-based Translation Study
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翻譯過程中,譯者常在有意無意間增添額外訊息,因而能提升文本的可讀性、銜接程度以及訊息的明確化程度,此現象稱為「明朗化」(explicitation)。明朗化的翻譯研究,多側重探討譯文中使用的連接詞、轉折詞等銜接詞語,其他明朗化類型的研究相對較少。本文旨在歸納並探討英漢翻譯文本中,除了連接詞,還有哪些明朗化類型能夠增加文本的明朗化程度,並進一步驗證Blum-Kulka(1986)提出的明朗化假說(explicitation hypothesis)在英漢科普譯文中是否成立。
本研究以漢語科普翻譯中的明朗化類型為研究對象,彙整《科學人》雜誌中文版2011年間1、4、7月刊的原文和譯文,並建構平行語料庫PCSA(即the Parallel Corpus of Scientific American)。本研究結合Klaudy、Pápai、House和Chen分別提出的四種明朗化模型,採用語料庫研究方法,透過比較原文和譯文來找出該語料庫的明朗化實例。
研究結果發現,明朗化的種類相當多元且涵蓋範圍甚廣。本研究中發現的明朗化類型包括:重新組句、闡明前置詞、說明縮寫語、增添連接詞、使用修飾詞、提供背景資訊,及增加標點符號等;此外,這些類型還涉及各種語言層級,包括譯文的用字、文法、邏輯、文本和非語言層次。上述發現均證實英漢科普翻譯中確實有明朗化的現象。

In the translation process, translators tend to add extra information consciously or unconsciously in order to raise the readability, the cohesion, and the clarity of the translated texts. This phenomenon is considered as “explicitation”. Most of the explicitation translation studies pivot on cohesive devices such as connectives, transitional words, and reformulation markers. In comparison, the studies duscussing other types of explicitation are only a few. The study aims at categorizing and studying the explicitation patterns and further testifying Blum-Kulka’s “explicitation hypothesis” in the English-Chinese translated scientific texts.
The study seeks to investigate the explicitation patterns in the English-Chinese popular science translations and the data for the proposed Parallel Corpus of Scientific American is compiled from the January, April, and July Issues of the Scientific American magazine published in 2011. The study also incorporates four explicitation typologies respectively put forward by Klaudy, Pápai, House, and Chen. Afterwards, through comparing the source texts and the target texts, the corpus-based method is utilized to find out the explicitation patterns in the PCSA.
The research findings demonstrate that the explicitation patterns in the PCSA include a wide variety of types (such as sentence rearrangement, clarifying anaphora, specifying acronyms, inserting conjunctions, using rhetorical devices, providing background information, adding puntuations and so on) and involve several language levels, ranging from the word level, the grammatical level, the logical level, the textual level, and the extra-linguistic level. All these discoveries can serve as supports for explicitation hypothesis in the context of English-Chinese popular science translations.
ABSTRACT
In the translation process, translators tend to add extra information consciously or unconsciously in order to raise the readability, the cohesion, and the clarity of the translated texts. This phenomenon is considered as “explicitation”. Most of the explicitation translation studies pivot on cohesive devices such as connectives, transitional words, and reformulation markers. In comparison, the studies duscussing other types of explicitation are only a few. The study aims at categorizing and studying the explicitation patterns and further testifying Blum-Kulka’s “explicitation hypothesis” in the English-Chinese translated scientific texts.
The study seeks to investigate the explicitation patterns in the English-Chinese popular science translations and the data for the proposed Parallel Corpus of Scientific American is compiled from the January, April, and July Issues of the Scientific American magazine published in 2011. The study also incorporates four explicitation typologies respectively put forward by Klaudy, Pápai, House, and Chen. Afterwards, through comparing the source texts and the target texts, the corpus-based method is utilized to find out the explicitation patterns in the PCSA.
The research findings demonstrate that the explicitation patterns in the PCSA include a wide variety of types (such as sentence rearrangement, clarifying anaphora, specifying acronyms, inserting conjunctions, using rhetorical devices, providing background information, adding puntuations and so on) and involve several language levels, ranging from the word level, the grammatical level, the logical level, the textual level, and the extra-linguistic level. All these discoveries can serve as supports for explicitation hypothesis in the context of English-Chinese popular science translations.

ABSTRACT (Chinese) i
ABSTRACT (English) ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES vi
Chapter One: Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.1.1 Descriptive Translation Studies 1
1.1.2 Corpus-based Translation Studies 2
1.1.3 Translation Universals 2
1.2 Research Motivation 5
1.3 Research Questions and Purposes 6
1.4 Significance of the Research 6
1.5 Research Framework 6
Chapter Two: Literature Review 8
2.1 Explicitation 8
2.1.1 Explicitation as Strategies 9
2.1.2 Explicitation as a Translation Universal 11
2.1.3 Explicitation in This Study 13
2.2 The Development of Corpora in Explicitation Studies 13
2.3 Corpus-based Explicitation Studies 15
2.4 Existing Typologies of Explicitation 18
2.4.1 Klaudy’s Typology for Explicitation 18
2.4.2 Pápai’s Typology for Explicitation 23
2.4.3 House’s Typology 25
2.4.4 Chen’s Model 27
Chapter Three: Methodology 31
3.1 Types of Corpora 31
3.1.1 Parallel Corpora 33
3.1.2 Multilingual Corpora 34
3.1.3 Comparable Corpora 35
3.1.4 Towards Hybrid Corpora 36
3.2 The Corpus for This Study 37
3.2.1 Structure and Size of the Corpus 37
3.2.2 Selection of Research Materials 38
3.3 The Proposed Explicitation Typology 39
Chapet Four: Data Analysis 42
4.1 Obligatory Explicitation 42
4.1.1 Syntactic Explicitation 42
4.1.2 Semantic Explicitation 47
4.2 Optional Explicitation 49
4.2.1 Syntactic Explicitation 49
4.2.2 Semantic Explicitation 51
4.2.3 Cohesive Devices 56
4.2.4 Rhetorical Devices 61
4.3 Discussions of the Results 69
Chapter Five: Conclusion 74
5.1 Findings of the Study 74
5.2 Limitations of the Study 77
5.3 Suggestions for Future Research 78
REFERENCES 80
Appendix: The Content of the PCSA 89


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