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研究生:馮鈴惠
研究生(外文):Ling-Hui Feng
論文名稱:閱讀模式與發展因素對台灣國小學童英文閱讀速率和閱讀理解之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Reading Modes and Developmental Factors on Taiwanese EFL Young Learners’ English Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension
指導教授:郭鳳蘭 博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Feng-lan Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:兒童英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:閱讀模式程度級別學級口語閱讀流暢度口語閱讀理解默讀流暢度默讀理解
外文關鍵詞:reading modesproficiency levelsgrade levelsoral reading fluencyoral reading comprehensionsilent reading fluencysilent reading comprehension
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閱讀一直被視為語言習得的一個重要因素。觀察不同年齡層、不同程度學習者的閱讀發展,以及口語閱讀與默讀兩種閱讀模式對學習者閱讀理解的影響是值得探討的議題 (Burge, 1983; Fletcher &; Pumfrey, 1988; Kim, Wagner, &; Lopez, 2012; Miller &; Smith, 1985)。研究指出,不同的閱讀行為會影響學習者閱讀流暢度和閱讀理解。例如,口語閱讀有助於低成就及年紀小學習者的閱讀理解 (Elgart, 1978; Fletcher &; Pumfrey, 1988; Miller &; Smith, 1985; Swalm, 1972)。另一方面,先前研究指出默讀是不受干擾的閱讀方式 (Al-Qurashi, Watson, Hafseth, Hickman, &; Pond, 1995)。因此,本研究旨在了解不同的閱讀模式、不同程度及不同學級對閱讀流暢度和閱讀理解之影響。本研究之受試者為台灣中部某公立國小129名五年級與132名六級學童;閱讀能力程度測驗工具為Cambridge Young Learners English Tests (YLE);主要測驗工具為Gray Oral Reading Test (Wiederholt &; Bryant, 2001) 和Gray Silent Reading Test (Wiederholt &; Blalock, 2000)標準閱讀測驗。三因子統計分析受試者在閱讀模式(口語閱讀、默讀)、程度級別(高程度、低程度)、學級(五年級、六年級)對於閱讀流暢度和閱讀理解能力的影響。結果顯示閱讀模式、程度級別及學級都是影響閱讀流暢度的因素。在這三個因素之間,閱讀模式對於閱讀流暢度的影響程度最大(F = 246.932 , p < .05)。對於閱讀理解而言,程度級別是最主要的影響因素(F = 41.755, p < .05)。
以口語閱讀流暢度而言,閱讀模式和程度級別之間有互相影響,結果顯示高程度組別的學生在口語閱讀流暢度表現上明顯優於低程度組別的學生(t = 8.448, p < .05)。與默讀流暢度相比,低程度組別的學生卻是顯著優於高程度組別的學生(t = 4.029, p < .05)。此外,閱讀模式和級別在閱讀理解能力上有相互影響,結果顯示六年級在默讀理解能力上明顯優於五年級學生(t = 4.291, p < .05)。因此,合理的推論是低程度組別的學生因看不懂而增加其默讀速度,以致於沒有達到默讀理解能力。
受試者的口語閱讀流暢度、口語閱讀理解能力、默讀流暢度及默讀理解能力之間的關係可歸納如下:(1)口語閱讀流暢度與口語理解能力在五年級(r = .346)和六年級(r = .405)的表現上有中度相關。這結果顯示無論是五年級或是六年級的學生有好的口語閱讀流暢度也同樣有好的口語閱讀理解能力。(2)默讀流暢度和默讀理解能力在五年級(r = -.214)和六年級(r = -.290)的表現卻是負相關。這顯示受試者雖可以快速默讀,但他們的默讀能力表現是低的。參照這些結果,五年級和六年級的學生雖有好的閱讀流暢度,但他們卻沒有達到默讀理解能力。因此,台灣以英語為外語的學童們需要更多的閱讀訓練來幫助他們達到閱讀理解。

Reading has been viewed as an important factor to acquire a language. It is worthwhile to observe language learners' reading development in different reading modes, proficiency levels, and grade levels on learners’ reading fluency and reading comprehension (Burge, 1983; Fletcher &; Pumfrey, 1988; Kim, Wagner, &; Lopez, 2012; Miller &; Smith, 1985). Researchers pointed out that different reading behavior affects learners’ reading fluency and reading comprehension. For example, oral reading is beneficial to less-proficient and younger learners' reading performance (Elgart, 1978; Fletcher &; Pumfrey, 1988; Miller &; Smith, 1985; Swalm, 1972). On the other hand, research findings indicated that silent reading is a good way for reading without interruption (Al-Qurashi, Watson, Hafseth, Hickman, &; Pond, 1995). The present study thus aims to examine the effects of reading modes, proficiency levels, and grade levels on Taiwanese 5th and 6th graders' reading fluency and reading comprehension performance. The participants are one hundred twenty-nine 5th graders and one hundred thirty-two 6th graders. They were given one reading proficiency test, Cambridge Young Learners English Tests (YLE) and two standardized reading tests, Gray Oral Reading Test (Wiederholt &; Bryant, 2001) and Gray Silent Reading Test (Wiederholt &; Blalock, 2000), to measure their reading proficiency, reading fluency, and reading comprehension ability. Participants’ reading fluency and reading comprehension performance were analyzed and compared by three-way ANOVA. Results of the three-way ANOVA analyses revealed that reading modes (oral reading and silent reading), proficiency levels (high level and low level), and grade levels (fifth graders and sixth graders) are factors affecting their reading fluency. Among them, the reading modes had a moderate effect (F = 246.932, p < .05), whereas proficiency levels and grade levels had weak effects on their reading fluency. Concerning reading comprehension, proficiency level was the significant factor on their reading comprehension (F = 41.755, p < .05).
The interaction between reading modes and proficiency levels on reading fluency was further analyzed. The results showed that participants who were in the high level group performed significantly better than the low level group on oral reading fluency (t = 8.448, p < .05). In contrast, regarding silent reading fluency, the low level group was found to read faster than the high level group (t = 4.029, p < .05). Moreover, there was an interaction between reading modes and grade levels on reading comprehension. The results showed that the sixth graders performed significantly better than the fifth graders on silent reading comprehension (t = 4.291, p < .05). Thus, it is likely that the low proficiency level group read fast but they do not achieve the silent reading comprehension.
The relationship among participants' oral reading fluency, oral reading comprehension, silent reading fluency, and silent reading comprehension was discussed as the followings: (1) The correlation between oral reading fluency and oral reading comprehension was moderately correlated on fifth graders (r = .346) and sixth graders (r = .405). The results indicated that the fifth graders and the sixth graders who have good oral reading fluency also have good oral reading comprehension. (2) The correlation between silent reading fluency and silent reading comprehension showed a moderate negative correlation on fifth graders (r = -.214) and sixth graders (r = -.290). This indicates that although the subjects read fast, their silent reading comprehension is low. Referring to the results, though the fifth graders and sixth graders had good silent reading fluency, they did not perform well on their silent reading comprehension. Therefore, Taiwanese EFL young learners need to have more reading training to facilitate their comprehension.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT (Chinese version) i
ABSTRACT (English version) iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
LIST OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF TABLES xi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Research Motivation and Rationale 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 10
1.4 Research Questions 10
1.5 Significance of the Study 11
1.6 Definition of Terms 12
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 17
2.1 Reading Development 17
2.1.1 L1 Reading Development 17
2.1.2 L2 Reading Development 19
2.2 Modes of Oral Reading and Silent Reading 19
2.3 Connections between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension 21
2.3.1 Connections between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in L1 context 21
2.3.2 Connections between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in EFL context 24
2.4 Empirical Studies on Oral Reading and Silent Reading Performance 25
2.4.1 Empirical Studies Related to Learners' Oral Reading and Silent Reading Performance Conducted in an L1 Environment 25
2.4.2 Empirical Studies Related to Learners' Oral Reading and Silent Reading Performance Conducted in an L2 Environment 29
2.5 The Norms of Oral Reading Fluency and Silent Reading Fluency 31
2.6 Measurements of Oral Reading and Silent Reading Comprehension 36

CHAPTER THREE METHODS 40
3.1 Pilot Study for Determining Reading Passage Difficulty 40
3.2 Participants 41
3.3 Instruments 42
3.3.1 The Reading Proficiency Test 42
3.3.2 The Oral Reading Test 43
3.3.3 The Silent Reading Test 45
3.4 The Experimental Procedures 46
3.4.1 Experimental Procedures for the Reading Proficiency Test 47
3.4.2 Experimental Procedures for the Oral Reading Test 47
3.4.3 Experimental Procedures for the Silent Reading Test 48
3.5 The Scoring Procedure 48
3.5.1 Scoring Procedures for the Reading Proficiency Test 49
3.5.2 Scoring Procedures for the Oral Reading Test 49
3.5.3 Scoring Procedures for the Silent Reading Test 50
3.6 Data Analysis 50
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 52
4.1 Effects of Reading Modes, Proficiency Levels, and Grade Levels on Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Reading Fluency 52
4.2 Effects of Reading Modes, Proficiency Levels, and Grade Levels on Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Reading Comprehension 60
4.3 The Relationship among Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Oral Reading Fluency, Oral Reading Comprehension, Silent Reading Fluency and Silent Reading Comprehension 66
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 75
5.1 Major Findings of the Present Study 75
5.1.1 Effects of Reading Modes on Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension 75
5.1.2 Effects of Proficiency Levels on Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension 76
5.1.3 Effects of Grade Levels on Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension 77
5.1.4 Interaction Effects among Reading Modes, Proficiency and Grade Levels on Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension 79
5.1.5 The Relationship among Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Oral Reading Fluency, Oral Reading Comprehension, Silent Reading Fluency and Silent Reading Comprehension 80
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 81
5.3 Limitation of the Study and Suggestions for Future Studies 83
REFERENCES 85
APPENDICES 95
Appendix A The Reading Proficiency Test 95
Appendix B The Oral Reading Test 97
Appendix C The Silent Reading Test 101
Appendix D The Oral Reading Test: Profile/ Examiner Record 103

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 Hasbrouck and Tindal's (2006) Oral Reading Fluency Norms, grades1-8 . 34
Table 2.2 Taylor's (2006) Silent Reading Grade Norms/ Goals ............................... 35
Table 3.1 The Total Number of Students of Grader Distribution of the Ten Classes . 42
Table 4.1 The Numbers of Data in Different Grouping ............................................ 53
Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Modes, Proficiency Levels and Grade Levels on Reading Fluency ......................................................................... 54
Table 4.3 Tests of Between-Subject Effects of Reading modes, Proficiency Levels, and Grade Levels on Reading Fluency ........................................................ 56
Table 4.4 Group Statistics (Proficiency Levels) on Oral Reading Fluency ................ 57
Table 4.5 Independent Samples T-Test (Proficiency Levels) on Oral Reading
Fluency ......................................................................................................... 58
Table 4.6 Group Statistics (Proficiency Levels) on Silent Reading Fluency .............. 59
Table 4.7 Independent Samples T-Test (Proficiency Levels) on Silent Reading
Fluency ......................................................................................................... 59
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Modes, Proficiency Levels and Grade Levels on Reading Comprehension ............................................................. 61
Table 4.9 Tests of Between-Subject Effects of Reading modes, Proficiency Levels, and Grade Levels on Reading Comprehension ........................................... 62
Table 4.10 Group Statistics (Grade Levels) on Oral Reading Comprehension .......... 63
Table 4.11 Independent Samples T-Test (Grade Levels) on Oral Reading
Comprehension ............................................................................................ 64
Table 4.12 Group Statistics (Grade Levels) on Silent Reading Comprehension ........ 65
Table 4.13 Independent Samples T-Test (Grade Levels) on Silent Reading
Comprehension .......................................................................................... 66
Table 4.14 The Descriptive Statistics between 5th Graders' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension ........................................................................... 67
Table 4.15 The Correlations between 5th Graders' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension ......................................................................................... 68
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Table 4.16 The Descriptive Statistics between 6th Graders' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension ........................................................................... 70
Table 4.17 The Correlations between 6th Graders' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension ......................................................................................... 71
Table 5.1 The Results of Taiwanese EFL Young Learners' Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension ............................................................................. 78
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