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研究生:蕭彣伃
研究生(外文):Wen-Yu Hsiao
論文名稱:紅麴醬油之化學組成、揮發性成分及抗氧化特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Chemical Compositions, Volatile Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Soy Sauces Containing Monascus during Fermentation
指導教授:翁義銘翁義銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Ming Weng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:醬油紅麴紅糟抗氧化性揮發性香氣成分感官品評
外文關鍵詞:Soy sauceRed yeast riceRed vinasseAntioxidantVolatile compoundsSensory evaluation
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摘要

醬油(Soy sauce)是東方及亞洲國家傳統的發酵食品,主要原料為大豆和小麥經過微生物酵素作用及非酵素性作用製成的液體調味品,醬油因為所含的食鹽較高,一般不建議食用過多。除了降低醬油的鈉含量製成低鈉醬油外,較新的趨勢是將具有生理活性的物質加入以改善醬油的機能性。紅麴米 (Red yeast rice) 是以黏性較低的在來米(Indica rice) 為原料經由紅麴菌 (Monascus) 發酵而產生的一種紫紅色產品,紅麴米不僅提供色澤、特殊風味,同時還具有抑菌與防治心血管疾病等多種功能。紅糟 (Red vinasse) 是另一種功能類似的產品,紅糟以黏性較高糯米為原料,因為紅麴菌在糯米 (Glutinous rice) 上生長不易,通常需以紅麴米作為菌酛 (Starter)。雖然已經有部分添加紅糟的紅麴醬油產品,但是缺乏較有系統性的研究,因此本研究的目的在探討在不同發酵時間分別加入紅麴米或紅糟對醬油品質之影響。
本研究除採用購得市售之紅麴米外,並以Monascus purpureus Went BCRC 31615接種於蒸熟之在來米,經過30℃培養7天及40℃烘乾1天可得到自製的紅麴米。兩種紅麴米經粉碎後作為菌酛,分別接種於蒸熟的糯米,於室溫發酵下21天可得到市售紅麴米紅糟及自製紅糟。所有醬油醪 (Soy sauce mash) 均發酵180天的條件下,兩種紅麴米及兩種紅糟分別在醬油醪開始下缸發酵時或在發酵第90天加入,以探討紅麴米及紅糟對醬油品質之影響。因此本研究的醬油樣品共有9種,對照組(S1)為不添加紅麴米或紅糟且經發酵180天所得到的醬油。醬油醪下缸發酵時同時添加市售紅麴米、市售紅麴米製作之紅糟、自製紅麴米及自製紅糟的樣品分別稱為S2、S3、S4及S5。醬油醪發酵90天後添加市售紅麴米、市售紅麴米製作之紅糟、自製紅麴米及自製紅糟的樣品分別稱為S6、S7、S8及S9。
醬油醪發酵180天其NaCl含量约為20.0% ~ 21.8%;甲醛態氮含量以S3的0.71%為最高;醬油醪發酵到六個月對照組的氨態氮較高為0.12 %;胺基態氮含量方面以S3的0.60%最高;總氮以S7的1.60%較高;pH值隨發酵時間緩慢降低,發酵到六個月後,以S7的4.90為最低;褐變程度方面以S7 的褐變程度最高;酸度以S5為較高;醬油醪發酵六個月後總固形物約31.3~34.3°Brix;游離胺基酸中之Glutamic acid具有鮮味,含量以S7為較高,Aspartic acid含量也是S7較高。
醬油的抗氧化成分及抗氧化能力方面,總酚 (Total phenolics)、類黃酮 (Flavonoids) 含量以S7最高,清除DPPH自由基也是以S7能力最強,還原力則以S3最強。醬油中Monacolin K、GABA及Citrinin含量方面,Monacolin K以S9含量最高,GABA則以S6含量最高。此外,所有樣品皆未檢出Citrinin。
採用固相微萃取-氣相層析-質譜法(Solid phase microextraction-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry, SPME-GC-MS)進行醬油揮發性香氣成分的分析。每一種醬油中皆含Phenyl ethyl alcohol、4-Ethyl-2-methoxy-phenol (4-Ethylguaiacol)、2-Methoxy-phenol (Guaiacol)、4-Ethyl-phenol、Benzeneacetic acid ethyl ester、Tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester、Pentadecanoic acid ethyl ester、E-11-hexadecenoic acid ethyl ester、Hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester、Linoleic acid ethyl ester、Ethyl oleate、Benzaldehyde和Benzeneacetaldehyde。5-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-3(2H) furanone (HEMF) 以S7的揮發性香氣成分百分比較高為0.94%,揮發性香氣成分面積也以S7得到的最高。
感官品評(Sensory evaluation)的結果顯示,香氣(Aroma)以S7得到最高的評分,在色澤 (Color) 以S6得到最高的評分,在口感(Taste)所獲得的評分以S7得到最高的評分,整體喜好性 (Overall preference)也是以S7得到最高的評分。整體而言,在醬油醪發酵過程中添加紅麴或紅糟可提升醬油之品質、增加醬油之機能性成分及抗氧化性、改善醬油之風味並賦予醬油更加的品評可接受性。
ABSTRACT

Soy sauce , a traditional fermented liquid seasoning in the eastern Asian countries for centuries, is produced from wheat and soybean through microbial fermentation and non-enzymatic reactions. Because of the relatively high salt content, it is generally recommended to limit the consumption of soy sauce. In addition to manufacture low-salt soy sauce by reducing sodium content, a modern trend is to develop functional soy sauce by incorporating biologically beneficial components into soy sauce. Red yeast rice, with special flavor and possessing antimicrobial activity and preventing cardiovascular disease capability, is a purple-red product obtained by fermentation of steamed Indica rice with Monascus. Red vinasse, with glutinous rice as the fermentation medium, is another Monascus-related product with similar properties a red yeast rice. However, red yeast rice is used as the starter for red vinasse production because the growth of Monascus is retarded by the relatively high viscosity of glutinous rice. Although soy sauces containing red yeast rice or red vinasse are found in the market, the systemic and scientific study on these products is rare. Thus the main objective of this study was to explore the effects of red yeast rice or red vinasse on the physiochemical and functional properties as well as volatile composition of soy sauce.
In addition to commercial red yeast rice, lab-made red yeast rice was prepared by inoculating Monascus purpureus Went BCRC 31615 into steamed Indica rice, incubating at 30℃ for 7 days and drying at 40℃for 1 day. Both types of the red yeast rice were used as the starter to make red vinasse. Steamed glutinous rice was inoculated with ground red yeast rice, incubated at room temperature for 21 days and dried at 40℃for 1 day to obtained red vinasse. The types of red vinasse derived from commercial aor lab-made red yeast rice were named as red vinaess and lab-made vinaess, respectively. All types of soy sauces were obtained by fermentation of soy sauce mash for 180 days; and the red yeast rice or red vinaess was added individually at the beginning of the fermentation or at day 90 of the fermentation. Soy sauce S1 was fermented without the addition of Monascus product and served as the control. Soy sauces prepared by addition of commercial red yeast rice, red vinasse, lab-made red yeast rice and lab-made vinasse in the beginning of mash fermentation were denoted as S2, S3, S4 and S5, respectively. Soy sauces prepared by addition of commercial red yeast rice, red vinasse, lab-made red yeast rice and lab-made vinasse in day 90 of mash fermentation were denoted as S6, S7, S8 and S, respectively.
After the 180-day fermentation, the sodium chloride contents were between 20.0-21.8% in say sauces. While the S1 had the highest ammonia nitrogen of 0.12% and S7 contained the highest total nitrogen of 1.60%., the highest formaldehyde nitrogen of 0.71% and the highest amino nitrogen of 0.6% were detected in S3. The pH values of soy sauce mash decreased as the fermentation time increased and the lowest pH of 4.90 was detected in S7 at the end of fermentation. While the total solid contents of soy sauce mash were between 31.3~34.3°Brix, S7 exerted the highest browning index and S5 possessed the highest Titratable acidity. S7 had the most abundant amount of Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid.
The highest amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids were detected in S7. While S3 showed the strongest reducing power, S7 exerted the highest DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The highest amounts of Monacolin K and GABA were detected in S9 and S6, respectively. Citrinin was not detected in all soy sauce sample.
Solid phase microextraction-Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile aroma compounds of soy sauces. The results indicated that all soy sauces contained following volatile compounds: Phenyl ethyl alcohol ,4-Ethyl-2-methoxy-phenol (4-Ethylguaiacol), 2-Methoxy-phenol (guaiacol), 4-Ethyl-phenol, Benzeneacetic acid ethyl ester, Tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester, Pentadecanoic acid ethyl ester, E-11-hexadecenoic acid ethyl ester, Hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, Linoleic acid ethyl ester, Ethyl oleate, Benzaldehyde and Benzeneacetaldehyde. In addition, the highest content of 5-ethyl-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone (HEMF) and the highest percentage of aroma area (0.94%) were detected in S7.
Although S6 had the highest score of color, S7 had the highest scores of aroma and overall preference in sensory evaluation. In conclusion, the biologically active components, antioxidant properties, volatile compound contents, organoleptic properties of soy sauce could be improved by the addition of red yeast rice and red vinasse during the soy sauce mash fermentation.
目錄 i
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
中文摘要 x
ABSTRACT xiii
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻整理 3
一、醬油原料 3
(一) 大豆 3
(二) 小麥 4
(三) 食鹽 5
(四) 水 5
二、醬油的分類 5
三、醬油的製造過程 7
(一) 大豆的浸泡 7
(二) 黃豆蒸煮 8
(三) 小麥焙炒及粉碎 8
(四) 製麴 8
(五) 鹽水調製與下缸 13
(六) 攪拌 15
(七) 醬油醪成熟 15
(八) 壓榨 16
(九) 調配 16
(十) 加熱 16
四、醬油色澤形成機制 18
五、醬油的香氣成分 18
六、紅麴米 22
(一) 紅麴米製作 22
(二) 紅麴菌代謝產物 23
(三) 紅麴保健功能 26
七、醬油保健功能 31
八、香氣成分分析 34
(一) 氣相層析質譜儀 34
(二) 固相微萃取 34
九、研究目的 35
參、實驗架構 39
肆、材料與方法 40
一、材料 40
二、儀器設備 40
三、實驗藥品 42
伍、實驗方法 43
一、醬油釀造 43
(一) 黃豆蒸煮 43
(二) 小麥焙炒 43
(三) 製麴 25
(四) 下缸 43
(五) 紅糟製作 43
(六) 實驗組別 44
二、醬油醪一般成份分析 48
(一) NaCl測定 48
(二) 甲醛態氮 (Formalin-nitrogen, FN) 測定 48
(三) 氨態氮 (Ammonia-nitrogen, AN) 48
(四) 胺基態氮 (Amino nitrogen,AN) 測定 49
(五) 總氮 (Total nitrogen,TN) 測定 49
(六) pH值測定 49
(七) 褐變程度 (Degree of browning) 測定 49
(八) 總固形物 (Total soluble solids,°Brix) 測定 50
(九) 可滴定酸 (Titratable acidity %) 測定 50
(十) 游離胺基酸分析 50
(十一) 色澤 (L, a, b) 50
(十二) 發酵醬油醪中紅麴菌存活之確認 50
三、醬油醪的抗氧化成分及抗氧化能力分析 51
(一) 抗氧化成分分析 51
(1) 總酚含量 (Total phenolics) 51
(2) 類黃酮含量 (Flavonoid content) 51
(二) 抗氧化能力分析 52
(1) 清除1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH)自由基能力 52
(2) 還原能力 (Reducing power) 52
四、醬油醪中Monacolin K、GABA及Citrinin分析 52
(一) 莫那可林 (Monacolin K) 分析 52
(二) γ-胺基丁酸 (GABA) 分析 53
(三) 紅麴毒素 (Citrinin) 定量 54
五、醬油醪的香氣成分 (SPME-GC-MS) 分析 55
六、感官品評 (Sensory evaluation) 56
七、統計分析 (Statistical analysis) 56
陸、結果與討論 58
柒、結論 73
捌、參考文獻 117
玖、附錄 126
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