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研究生:林沛縈
論文名稱:株齡、生長調節劑或賞瓶包裝方式對迷你蝴蝶蘭開花之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of plant ages, growth regulators, or packing methods of viewing container on in vitro or ex vitro flowering in miniature Phalaenopsis hybrids
指導教授:沈榮壽沈榮壽引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:園藝學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:迷你蝴蝶蘭植物生長調節劑瓶內開花
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蝴蝶蘭為臺灣重要的花卉作物,瓶內開花在觀賞與育種選拔具有應用價值。植物生長調節劑與株齡會影響植物由營養生長至生殖生長的相變。以6-苄氨基嘌呤(6-benzyladenine;BA)處理迷你蝴蝶蘭Phalaenopsis Patsy Green ‘KHM 487’瓶內培養10周苗齡的商業子瓶分生苗,顯示培養於含15 mg•L-1 BA培養基,經20℃涼溫誘導16周,花梗形成率可達到50.0%,並於26周後觀察到花苞形成。Phal. I-Hsin Anita ‘KHM 1942’以15 mg•L-1 BA與15 mg•L-1 BA組合1 mg•L-1 GA3處理,經20℃涼溫誘導17周,每株小苗分別形成1.9個和3.5個花梗數。然而,Doritaenopsis I-Hsin Pixie Reds ‘KHM 1565’以15 mg•L-1 BA或15 mg•L-1 BA組合1 mg•L-1 GA3處理,再經20℃涼溫誘導21周後,形成花梗數較少且傾向於營養芽的生長。瓶內花梗型態分為三種,第一種為由葉腋間抽出的腋生花梗,為常見之正常花梗;第二種為腋生芽體再抽長形成帶營養葉之側生花梗;第三種為自短縮莖頂端芽體直接抽長之頂生花梗。前述三品種以植物生長調節劑處理後,皆可誘導花梗產生,BA處理多形成側生花梗,添加GA3處理顯著增加頂生花梗數。試驗僅在Phal. I-Hsin Anita ‘KHM 1942’,經20℃涼溫誘導8個月之對照組中觀察到三株花朵正常開放,且具有正常花器發育,試驗中首見蝴蝶蘭瓶內開花,其餘處理花苞皆於發育過程黃化脫落。
Dtps. I-Hsin Symphony ‘KHM 1608’迷你株於出瓶後生長5月齡較3月齡開花表現佳,3月齡植株不易抽梗,但以BA處理後可顯著促進Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary ‘KHM 2244’、Dtps. I-Hsin Symphony ‘KHM 1608’及Phal. Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’花梗形成,75 mg•L-1 BA為最適處理濃度。另Dtps. I-Hsin Pixie Reds ‘KHM 1565’迷你株試驗顯示,單獨施用75 mg•L-1 BA或組合1 mg•L-1 GA3處理,有效提高花梗數與雙梗率,唯GA3處理後多為頂生花梗且花梗多畸形,不具觀賞價值。顯示BA處理可促進迷你蝴蝶蘭抽梗與開花表現,並縮短出瓶後至抽梗時間。此外,paclobutrazol處理可有效縮短蝴蝶蘭花梗長度且可增加花朵直徑,顯示paclobutrazol處理後可調控花梗長度且創造較合適迷你型態。
蝴蝶蘭Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary‘KHM 2244’迷你株以1-MCP燻蒸預處理,配合瓶口不同氣閉條件,對瓶中花朵觀賞壽命之影響顯示:空氣流通(對照組)、半密封及1-MCP預處理後再半密封三種處理,相較於完全密封或1-MCP預處理後再完全密封處理,第一朵花朵壽命增加約24.8天,達41.4-48.8天。此外,調查植株移至瓶中後呼吸率、乙烯釋放率、瓶內二氧化碳濃度及瓶內乙烯濃度,結果顯示經1-MCP預處理後,在對照組、半密封及1-MCP處理後半密封等處理可以減少乙烯釋放率,並延緩呼吸高峰與乙烯高峰釋放率的時間。處理間以1-MCP預處理後再完全密封,可延緩6天產生乙烯高峰,且乙烯含量相較於完全密封處理之乙烯濃度低。綜上結果顯示,影響瓶中花朵壽命主要為氣閉條件,半密封條件花朵壽命顯著高於完全密封,經測試Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary ‘KHM 2244’對乙烯反應屬不敏感品種,可推薦於瓶中花利用。配合使用1-MCP預處理後置於半密封條件,可更有效延長瓶中花朵壽命。
Phalaenopsis orchid cultivation is an important flower industry in Taiwan. In vitro flowering has become a valuable technique on plant breeding and developing ornamental commodities. Plant growth regulators and ages could affect the reproductive behavior from vegetative growth phase to reproductive growth phase. This result showed that 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) treatments were able to induce the 10-week-old plantlets of Phal. Patsy Green ‘KHM 487’ cultured in vitro medium contained with 15 mg•L-1 BA, there are 50% of flower stalks formation after cooling temperature of 20℃ after 16 weeks, and visible flower bud formed after 26 weeks culture. In Phal. I-Hsin Anita ‘KHM 1942’, there are 1.9 and 3.5 flower stalks in average formed after treated with 15 mg•L-1 BA alone or 15 mg•L-1 BA combination with 1 mg•L-1 GA3 at 20℃ of cooling temperature after 17 weeks. While, in Doritaenopsis I-Hsin Pixie Reds ‘KHM 1565’, fewer stalks formed and greater number of axillary-buds produced after treated with 15 mg•L-1 BA alone or 15 mg•L-1 BA combination with 1 mg•L-1 GA3 at 20℃ of cooling temperature after 21weeks. In vitro flower stalks divided into three types, the first form is normal stalk which formation from leaf axil, the second form is lateral flower stalk which elongation from axillary buds, the third form is apical flower stalk which elongation from apical bud of short-stem. Summarized in the preceding three cultivars of this test after BA treatment, can be induced to produce stalk, BA treatment mostly formed lateral stalk, add GA3 treatment significantly increased the number of apical stalk. Also, this test only Phal. I-Hsin Anita 'KHM 1942', by 20℃of cool temperature for eight months, can observe the flowers opening of three plantlets in control, and having perfect floral organ. This is the first finding flowering in vitro of Phalaenopsis. While, on other treatments, flower buds are yellowing off during development process.
The flowering performance of deflasked plants of 5-month-old was better than 3-month-old in miniature Dtps. I-Hsin Symphony ‘KHM 1608’, and the 3-month-old plant was difficult to form flower stalk. However, treatment with BA can be significantly promoting stalk formation in Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary 'KHM 2244', Dtps. I-Hsin Symphony 'KHM 1608' and Phal. Sogo Yukidian 'V3', and 75 mg•L-1 BA is the optimum concentration. Beside, on flowering trails of mini-plant of Dtps. I-Hsin Pixie Reds 'KHM 1565' have shown that 75 mg•L-1 BA alone or combination of 1 mg•L-1 GA3 treatment, improve stalk number and double stalk rate. But only GA3 treatment mostly for producing apical flower stalk and malformations, there are no ornamental value. Therefore, BA treatment can promote mini-Phalaenopsis stalking and flowering performance, and shorten the time to stalking from de-flasked. In addition, paclobutrazol treatment can effectively shorten the length of flower stems and can increase the flower diameter. This result showed that paclobutrazol can regulate of stalk length and create more suitable mini-patterns.
Effects of airtight condition and 1-MCP pretreatment on flower longevity in bottle of miniature Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary ‘KHM 2244’ were explored. 1-MCP treatment will reduce the air circulation, semi-sealed and after 1-MCP treatment placed into semi-sealed condition ethylene production and delayed respiration rate and ethylene production. Air circulation, semi-sealed and pretreatment with 1-MCP and then place into semi-sealed compared to completely seal and pretreatment with 1-MCP and then place into completely sealed condition increased longevity 24.8 days (41.4-48.8 days). 1-MCP treatment placed into completely sealed will delay peak of ethylene 6 days and the ethylene concentration is lower than completely sealed. The results suggested that main of impact of flower longevity is airtight condition. The flower longevity of semi-sealed treatment is significantly higher than completely sealed. We suggest that produce the miniature Phalaenopsis, pretreatment with 1-MCP and then combined with airtight condition of semi-sealed will effectively extend the longevity of flowers in bottle.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄(Content) i
表目次(List of Tables) iii
第一章 緒論 1
Chapter 1. Introduction
第二章 前人研究 3
Chapter 2. Literature review
一、 蝴蝶蘭產業概況與生育特性 3
(一) 蝴蝶蘭產業現況分析 3
(二) 蝴蝶蘭生育特性與環境條件 4
二、 蘭科植物幼年期對生殖發育之影響 4
(一) 影響幼年期長短的因子 5
(二) 縮短幼年期的方法 6
三、 植物生長物質對開花之影響 8
(一) 細胞分裂素對植物調節開花的影響 9
(二) 激勃素對植物調節開花的影響 10
四、 乙烯抑制劑對花朵壽命之影響 11
(一) 乙烯對花瓣老化之影響 11
(二) 控制乙烯的發生 13
(三) 1-MCP對花朵壽命之影響 13
五、 試管內開花(In vitro flowering) 14
第三章 誘導迷你蝴蝶蘭瓶內開花 17
Chapter 3. Induction of in vitro flowering of miniature Phalaenopsis hybrids
一、 前言(Introduction) 17
二、 材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 18
(一) 植物材料準備與管理 18
(二) 培養基組成與試驗方法 18
(三) 調查項目 19
(四) 試驗設計與統計分析 19
三、 結果(Result) 20
四、 討論(Discussion) 21
第四章 株齡與生長調節劑對蝴蝶蘭生殖生長之影響 35
Chapter 4. Effect of plant ages and growth regulators on reproductive growth of miniature Phalaenopsis hybrids
一、 前言(Introduction) 35
二、 材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 36
(一) 植物材料準備與管理 36
(二) 試驗方法 37
(三) 調查項目 37
(四) 試驗設計與統計分析 38
三、 結果(Result) 38
(一) 株齡對迷你蝴蝶蘭生殖生長之影響 38
(二) 生長調節劑對蝴蝶蘭生殖生長之影響 39
四、 討論(Discussion) 41
第五章 氣閉條件與甲基環丙烯燻蒸處理對迷你蝴蝶蘭瓶中花朵壽之影響 59
Chapter 5. Effect of airtight condition and 1-MCP treatment on flower longevity in bottle of miniature Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary ‘KHM 2244’
一、 前言(Introduction) 59
二、 材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 60
(一) 植物材料準備與管理 60
(二) 試驗方法 60
(三) 分析與調查項目 61
(四) 統計分析 62
三、 結果(Results) 62
(一) 瓶中氣閉條件與1-MCP處理對Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary ‘KHM 2244’迷你瓶中花朵壽命之影響 62
(二) 乙烯濃度對Dtps. I-Hsin Bloody Mary ‘KHM 2244’迷你盆花花朵壽命之影響 63
四、 討論(Discussion) 63
參考文獻 71
附錄 81
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