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研究生:吳彥延
研究生(外文):Wu, Yen-Yen
論文名稱:菇包廢料堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量對超甜玉米栽培土壤肥力,農藝性狀、產量、籽粒成分及抗氧化能力之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Different Application Rates of Spent Mushroom Compost and Chemical Fertilizer on Soil Fertility, Agronomic Characters、Yield、Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Capacity of Kernel in Super Sweet Corn
指導教授:侯金日侯金日引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hou, Chin-Jin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:農藝學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:玉米菇包廢料有機栽培農藝性狀產量化學成分抗氧化能力
外文關鍵詞:sweet corn (Zea may L.)chemical compositionyieldagronomic charactersorganic cultivationspent mushroom compost
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本研究主要以超甜玉米品種華珍為試驗材料,於2010年10月(秋作)及2011年3月(春作)種植於嘉義縣太保市梅埔里。試驗堆肥基質以菇類太空包廢料為主,並添加雞糞與牛糞混合堆置發酵成兩種堆肥。探討施用有機堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量之肥培管理,與雞糞、牛糞和化學肥料組合,對超甜玉米品種華珍在土壤肥力、葉片植體成分、農藝性狀、產量性狀、籽粒組成分與抗氧化能力之影響。
  有機堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量對超甜玉米土壤肥力,於秋作與春作施用有機肥高施用量+化學肥料,土壤有機質、有效性磷與交換性鉀、鈣均最高;在葉片植體成分,春作與秋作鉀含量均以施用有機肥於吐絲前最高,鈣則以有機肥低施用量+化學肥料於採收後含量最高,鎂含量均以有機肥高施用量於採收後含量最高;在農藝性狀方面,秋作與春作於穗高、葉長與葉寬均以施用化學肥料為最高;而產量性狀部分,秋作施用有機肥低施用量+化學肥料於籽粒長度、含苞葉穗重、去苞葉鮮穗重、每穗籽粒重與脫粒率均為最高,而春作施用化學肥料於每穗行數、籽粒長度、含苞葉穗重與去苞葉穗鮮重為最高。超甜玉米籽粒組成分,秋作籽粒灰分以施用有機肥低施用量+化學肥料為最高,而粗蛋白則以高施用量+化學肥料較高,粗脂肪則以有機肥低施用量為最高,春作灰分與粗蛋白以施用有機肥高施用量+化學肥料較高,粗脂肪則施用有機肥低施用量+化學肥料較高;在抗氧化能力方面,秋作與春作於VitC以施用有機肥低施用量含量較高,NO3-含量則以未施肥處理較低。
  雞糞、牛糞堆肥與化學肥料組合對超甜玉米土壤肥力,秋作施用雞糞堆肥+化學肥料於有機質、有效性磷、交換性鉀均顯著最高,而交換性鈣、鎂則以種植前土壤含量較高,春作土壤之pH值、有機質、有效性磷與交換性鎂均以施用有機質肥料具有較高之含量;而在玉米植體成分中,秋作與春作施用有機肥,植體中磷與鎂含量顯著較高,而植體中鉀與鈣則以添加化學肥料處理較高;農藝性狀方面,秋作施用化學肥料,於株高、穗高、穗徑與葉長均顯著最高,而春作施用則施用雞糞堆肥+化學肥料於株高、穗高、穗徑、葉長與葉寬顯著最高;而產量性狀中,秋作施用化學肥料,於每行籽粒數、籽粒長度、含苞葉穗重、去苞葉穗鮮重、每穗籽粒重與脫粒率均顯著最高,而春作施用則施用雞糞堆肥+化學肥料於每穗行數、每行籽粒數、籽粒長度、含苞葉穗重、去苞葉穗鮮重與每穗籽粒重均顯著最高;在超甜玉米籽粒組成分中,秋作於灰分、粗脂肪以施用雞糞與牛糞堆肥+化學肥料顯著最高,而粗蛋白則全施用化學肥料為最高,春作籽粒中粗蛋白含量以施用雞糞堆肥顯著最高,而粗脂肪則以雞糞+化學肥料顯著最高。在抗氧化能力方面,秋作於DPPH以施用雞糞+牛糞為最高,而VitC則施用雞糞堆肥為最高,春作於DPPH與FRAP均施用雞糞堆肥較高,NO3-含量則以未施肥處理較低。

This study used super sweet corn “Bright jean” as experimental material, which was planted at Taibao City, Chiayi County. The experimental period executed at October (autumn crop) and March (spring crop) in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The spent mushroom composts mixed with chicken excrements or cow dung or chemical fertilizer for experimental fermented composts. The purpose of study wanted to investigate the effect, which used fertilizers of different application rates and combinations at organic and chemical management on soil fertility, leaf compositions, agronomic characters, yield composition, chemical composition and antioxidant capacity.
The results of used different application rates fertilizers showed that used high organic mixed with chemical fertilizers had high levels on soil organic matter, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium and calcium content at autumn and spring crop. Leaf compositions: that used organic fertilizer had high level on potassium content before silk, used low organic mixed with chemical fertilizers had high level on calcium content after harvest, and used high organic fertilizers had high level on magnesium content after harvest at autumn and spring crop. Agronomic characters: that used chemical fertilizers was better on ear height, leaf length and leaf width at autumn and spring crop. Yield composition: the used low organic mixed with chemical fertilizers was better on kernel length, ear weight, ear fresh weight kernel weight per ear and threshing percentage at autumn crop, and used chemical fertilizers was better on number of rows per ear, kernel length, ear weight and ear fresh weight at spring crop. Super sweet corn chemical composition: that used low organic mixed with chemical fertilizer had high level on beat ash, used high organic mixed with chemical fertilizer had high level on crude protein, and used low organic fertilizer had high level on crude fat at autumn crop. Another used high organic mixed with chemical fertilizer had high level on kernel ash and crude protein, and used low organic mixed with chemical fertilizer had high level on crude fat at spring crop. Antioxidant capacity: that used low organic fertilizer had high level on Vitamin C content, and then used low organic had high level on fertilizer NO3- content at autumn and spring crop.
The results of used different application combinations fertilizers showed that used chicken excrements mixed with chemical fertilizer had high level on soil organic matter content, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium content, but exchangeable calcium and magnesium content were high level before planted at autumn crops. Another used organic fertilizer had high level on soil pH value, organic matter content and available phosphorus at spring crop. Leaf compositions: that used organic fertilizer had high level on phosphorus and magnesium content, but used chemical fertilizer had high level on potassium and calcium at autumn and spring crop. Agronomic characters: that used chemical fertilizer was better on plant height, ear height, ear diameter and leaf length at autumn crop, and used chicken excrements mixed with chemical fertilizer was better on plant height, ear height, ear diameter, leaf length and leaf width at spring crop. Yield composition: that used chemical fertilizer was better on number of kernel per row, kernel length, ear weight ear fresh weight, kernel weight per ear and threshing percentage at autumn crop, and used chicken excrements mixed with chemical fertilizer was better on number of rows per ear, number of kernel per row, kernel length, ear weight ear fresh weight and kernel weight per ear. Chemical composition: that used chicken excrements mixed with cow dung and chemical fertilizer had high level on ash and crude fat, and used chemical fertilizer had high level on crude protein at autumn crop. Used chicken excrements had high level on crude protein, and used chicken excrements mixed with chemical fertilizer had high level on crude fat. Antioxidant capacity: that used chicken excrements mixed with cow dung had high level on DPPH, and used chicken excrements had high level on Vitamin C content at autumn crop. But used chicken excrements had high level on DPPH and FRAP at spring crop.
中文摘要 I
Abstract Ⅲ
謝誌 V
表目錄 VI
壹、前言 1
貳、前人研究 4
參、材料與方法 13
肆、結果與討論 26
一、菇包廢棄物有機肥、雞糞堆肥、牛糞堆肥與化學肥料不同組合對超甜玉米土壤肥力之影響
(一) 菇包廢料堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量對超甜玉米華珍種植前與採收後土壤肥力之影響 26
(二) 菇包廢料堆肥、雞糞、牛糞與化學肥料組合對超甜玉米華珍土壤肥力之影響 34
二、菇包廢棄物有機肥、雞糞堆肥、牛糞堆肥與化學肥料不同組合對超甜玉米華珍吐絲期與採收後葉片植體成分之影響
(一) 菇包廢料堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量對超甜玉米華珍吐絲期與採收後葉片植體成分之影響 43
(二) 菇包廢料堆肥、雞糞、牛糞與化學肥料組合對超甜玉米華珍吐絲期與採收後葉片植體成分之影響 48
三、菇包廢棄物有機肥、雞糞堆肥、牛糞堆肥與化學肥料不同組合對超甜玉米華珍農藝性狀及產量之影響
(一) 菇包廢料堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量對超甜玉米華珍農藝性狀及產量之影響 54
(二) 菇包廢料堆肥、雞糞、牛糞與化學肥料組合對超甜玉米華珍農藝性狀及產量之影響 68
四、菇包廢棄物有機肥、雞糞堆肥、牛糞堆肥與化學肥料不同組合超甜玉米華珍籽粒組成成分之影響
(一) 菇包廢料堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量對超甜玉米華珍籽粒組成成分之影響 82
(二) 菇包廢料堆肥、雞糞、牛糞與化學肥料組合對超甜玉米華珍籽粒組成分之影響 88
五、菇包廢棄物有機肥、雞糞堆肥、牛糞堆肥與化學肥料不同組合超甜玉米華珍抗氧化活性與
硝酸鹽含量之影響
(一) 菇包廢料堆肥與化學肥料不同施用量對超甜玉米華珍抗氧化活性與硝酸鹽含量之影響 94
(二) 菇包廢料堆肥、雞糞、牛糞與化學肥料組合對超甜玉米華珍抗氧化活性與硝酸鹽含量之影響 101
伍、結語 108
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