跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.204.48.69) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 14:14
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:鄭庭伃
研究生(外文):Ting-Yu Cheng
論文名稱:使用豬生殖和呼吸道症候群病毒之基因轉殖菸草與商業化減毒活毒疫苗對田間豬隻感染豬生殖和呼吸道症候群病毒、豬第二型環狀病毒和豬肺炎黴漿菌之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Using Transgenic Tobacco and Commercial Attenuated Live Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Vaccines on the Infection of PRRSV, Porcine Circovirus type 2, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Field Pigs
指導教授:張志成張志成引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Cheng Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:豬生殖與呼吸道綜合症病毒基因轉殖菸草疫苗減毒活毒疫苗田間實驗
外文關鍵詞:PRRSVTransgenic tobaccoMLVField trial
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:198
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:40
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
此研究的目的為比較菸草轉殖 PRRSV 之GP5 基因(GP5-T),以及商業化減毒活毒疫苗(Ingelvac PRRS MLV®;MLV) 對於保育豬的保護效力。本實驗總共使用240 頭四週齡仔豬,分為四組。在GP5-T 組 (n = 60) 以及W-T 組 (n = 60) 在第0 天、14 天以及 28 天分別給予經基因轉殖菸草和未經過基因轉殖之菸草(野外型),而MLV 組(n = 60) 則在第0 天時肌肉注射MLV,Con 組 (n = 60) 為無口服菸草且無注射疫苗之控制組。本研究使用酵素連結免疫吸附試驗(ELSIA) 檢測豬隻血清中特異性抗體(抗PRRSV、豬第二型環狀病毒與豬肺炎黴漿菌),同時應用傳統血清生化分析測定非特異性免疫反應(total globulin;總球蛋白量)。上述三種病原的血清與肺臟組織中含量則利用定量即時聚合酶鏈鎖反應(qrt-PCR) 進行檢測與分析。本實驗之結果則是針對豬隻生長數據、病理學評估、特異性免疫反應(PRRSV, Porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae)、非特異性免疫反應(total globulin;總球蛋白量) ,以及在血清和肺臟組織中之上述三種病毒量進行比較分析。結果顯示,GP5-T 組之豬隻比起未接種之豬隻 (W-T、Con) 有較高的最終平均體重(53.98 ± 4.21 Kg) 以及實驗第21 天血清中總蛋白量(3.22 ± 0.61 g/dl),而MLV 組血清中則於實驗第56天有較高之抗PRRSV 抗體 (sample to positive ratio: 1.25 ± 0.28) 與較低的病毒含量。根據結果發現,給予不同種類的抗PRRSV 疫苗並透過不同的接種途徑可刺激豬隻產生不同面相與程度的保護效力。
The aim of this study was to compare the protective efficacies between transgenic tobacco plant expressing recombinant fusion protein of GP5 of PRRSV (GP5-T) and modified-live vaccine (Ingelvac PRRS MLV®, MLV) in nursery pigs. Two hundred and forty pigs (4-week-old) were evenly distributed into four groups. Pigs in group GP5-T and W-T were orally given with GP5-T and wild-type tobacco respectively at 0, 14 and 28 days post-experiment (dpe), while group MLV intramuscularly inoculated with the MLV at 0 dpe, and group Con acted as unvaccinated control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELSIA) was used to determine the antibodies specific to PRRSV, Porcine circovirus type 2, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and traditional biochemistry assay for non-specific (total globulin) immunogenic assessment. Also, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrt-PCR) was employed to quantify the levels of pathogenic loads of those three pathogens. The data of growth performance, pathologic assessment, specific and non-specific im-mune responses, pathogenic loads in sera and lung tissues were evaluated and analyzed. The results of this experiment suggested that pigs in group GP5-T revealed higher final average body weights (53.98 ± 4.21 Kg) and total globulin titers (3.22 ± 0.61 g/dl) in serum at 21 dpe than those (51.03 ± 4.56 Kg; 2.51 ± 0.51 g/dl) in unvaccinated pigs, whereas the higher specific anti-PRRSV antibody level in serum at 56 dpe (S/P ratio: 1.25 ± 0.28) and lower viral load were detected in serum of MLV vaccinated pigs. We concluded that pigs given with different vaccine types and inoculation routes might lead to different, yet varying degrees of protection against PRRSV in the field.
Abstract.................................................................................................................I
中文摘要.................................................................................................................III
Contents................................................................................................................IV
List of Abbreviations................................................................................................. VII
List of Tables .......................................................................................................VIII
List of Figures.........................................................................................................IX

Chapter 1. Introduction................................................................................................. 1
1-1. Porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) ................................................................ 1
1-1-1. Etiology ........................................................................................................ 1
1-1-2. Epidemiology..................................................................................................... 3
1-1-3. Immunology....................................................................................................... 4
1-1-4. Pathogenesis .................................................................................................... 6
1-2. Other co-infection pathogens ...................................................................................... 8
1-2-1. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)................................................................................. 8
1-2-2.Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO).................................................................................. 10
1-3. Porcine polymicrobial disease..................................................................................... 12
1-4. Development of PRRSV vaccine...................................................................................... 13
1-5. Transgenic tobacco plants ........................................................................................ 15
1-6. The purpose of this study ........................................................................................ 16
References............................................................................................................. 18

Chapter 2. Material and Methods........................................................................................ 27
2-1. Animals and housing .............................................................................................. 27
2-2. Experimental design .............................................................................................. 27
2-3. Clinical evaluation .............................................................................................. 28
2-4. Serology ......................................................................................................... 28
2-5. Pathologic examination............................................................................................ 29
2-6. Standard curves of pathogenic loads of PRRSV, PCV2 and MHYO....................................................... 30
2-7. Quantification of PRRSV cDNA in sera and tissues ................................................................. 31
2-8. Quantification of PCV2 DNA in sera and tissues.................................................................... 33
2-9. Quantification of MHYO DNA in sera and tissues ................................................................... 34
2-10. Statistical analysis............................................................................................. 34
References ............................................................................................................ 35

Chapter 3. Results .................................................................................................... 36
3-1. Foreword.......................................................................................................... 36
3-2. Clinical performance.............................................................................................. 36
3-3. Anti-PRRSV specific IgG antibodies ............................................................................... 36
3-4. Anti-PCV2 specific IgG antibodies ................................................................................ 37
3-5. Anti-MHYO specific IgG antibodies................................................................................. 37
3-6. Total serum globulin ............................................................................................. 37
3-7. Pathologic evaluations ........................................................................................... 38
3-8. Standard curves................................................................................................... 39
3-9. Viral loads of PRRSV in sera ..................................................................................... 40
3-10. Viral loads of PCV2 in sera ..................................................................................... 40
3-11. MHYO loads in sera .............................................................................................. 41
3-12. The viral/bacterial loads in the lungs........................................................................... 42
References............................................................................................................. 42

Chapter 4. Discussion.................................................................................................. 43
References............................................................................................................. 49

Chapter 5. Tables and Figures ......................................................................................... 52
Albina E. Epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an overview. Vet Microbiol 55: 309-316, 1997.
Allan GM, McNeilly F, Ellis J, Krakowka S, Meehan B, McNair I, Walker I, Kennedy S. Experimental infection of colostrum deprived piglets with porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) potentiates PCV2 replication. Arch Virol 145: 2421-2429, 2000.
Borrow P and Nash AA. Immunity to viruses. In: Male D, Brostoff J, Roth DB, Roitt I, ed. Immunology. Elsevier Saunders, Amsterdam, 211-222, 2012.
Casimir C. Vaccination. In: Male D, Brostoff J, Roth DB, Roitt I, ed., Immunology. Elsevier Saunders, Amsterdam, 289-303, 2012.
Chae C. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome: a review of aetiology, diagnosis and pathology. Vet J 168: 41-49, 2004.
Chae C. A review of porcine circovirus 2-associated syndromes and diseases. Vet J 169: 326-336, 2005.
Charerntantanakul W. Adjuvants for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 129: 1-13, 2009.
Cheon DS, Chae C. Distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in stillborn and liveborn piglets from experimentally infected sows. Journal of comparative pathology 124: 231-237, 2001.
Chia MY, Hsiao SH, Chan HT, Do YY, Huang PL, Chang HW, Tsai YC, Lin CM, Pang VF, Jeng CR. The immunogenicity of DNA constructs co-expressing GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus conjugated by GPGP linker in pigs. Vet Microbiol 146: 189-199, 2010.
Chia MY, Hsiao SH, Chan HT, Do YY, Huang PL, Chang HW, Tsai YC, Lin CM, Pang VF, Jeng CR. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of a transgenic tobacco plant expressing the recombinant fusion protein of GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin in pigs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 140: 215-225, 2011.
19
Chia MY, Hsiao SH, Chan HH, Do YY, Huang PL, Chang HW, Tsai YC, Lin CM, Pang VF, Jeng CR. Immunogenicity of recombinant GP5 protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressed in tobacco plant. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 135: 234-242, 2010.
Conzelmann KK, Visser N, Van Woensel P, Thiel HJ. Molecular characterization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, a member of the arterivirus group. Virology 193: 329-339, 1993.
Dea S, Gagnon CA, Mardassi H, Pirzadeh B, Rogan D. Current knowledge on the structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus: comparison of the North American and European isolates. Arch Virol 145: 659-688, 2000.
Delputte PL, Meerts P, Costers S, Nauwynck HJ. Effect of virus-specific antibodies on attachment, internalization and infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in primary macrophages. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 102: 179-188, 2004.
Díaz I, Darwich L, Pappaterra G, Pujols J, Mateu E. Immune responses of pigs after experimental infection with a European strain of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Gen Virol 86: 1943-1951, 2005.
Dokland T. The structural biology of PRRSV. Virus Res 154: 86-97, 2010.
Drew TW. A review of evidence for immunosuppression due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vet Res 31: 27-39, 2000.
Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Patterson R, Dodson K, Weeman M, Renukaradhya GJ. Intranasal delivery of whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces protective immune responses to a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine in pigs. Vaccine 29: 4067-4076, 2011.
Fang Y and Snijder EJ. The PRRSV replicase: exploring the multifunctionality of an intriguing set of nonstructural proteins. Virus Res 154: 61-76, 2010.
Geldhof MF, Van Breedam W, De Jong E, Lopez Rodriguez A, Karniychuk UU, Vanhee M, Van Doorsselaere J, Maes D, Nauwynck HJ. Antibody response and maternal immunity upon boosting PRRSV-immune sows with experimental farm-specific and commercial PRRSV vaccines. Veterinary microbiology 167: 260-271, 2013.
Genzow M, Schwartz K, Gonzalez G, Anderson G, Chittick W. The effect of vaccination against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on the Porcine circovirus-2
20
(PCV-2) load in porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) affected pigs. Can J Vet Res 73: 87-90, 2009.
Gonin P, Pirzadeh B, Gagnon CA, Dea S. Seroneutralization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus correlates with antibody response to the GP5 major envelope glycoprotein. J Vet Diagn Invest 11: 20-26, 1999.
Halbur PG, Paul PS, Frey ML, Landgraf J, Eernisse K, Meng XJ, Lum M a., Andrews JJ, Rathje J a. Comparison of the pathogenicity of two US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates with that of the Lelystad virus. Vet Pathol 32: 648-660, 1995.
Hansen MS, Pors SE, Jensen HE, Bille-Hansen V, Bisgaard M, Flachs EM, Nielsen OL. An investigation of the pathology and pathogens associated with porcine respiratory disease complex in Denmark. J Comp Pathol 143: 120-131, 2010.
Hermann JR, Muñoz-Zanzi CA, Roof MB, Burkhart K, Zimmerman JJ. Probability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection as a function of exposure route and dose. Vet Microbiol 110: 7–16, 2005.
Horlen KP, Dritz SS, Nietfeld JC, Henry SC, Hesse RA, Oberst R, Hays M, Anderson J, Rowland RRR. A field evaluation of mortality rate and growth performance in pigs vaccinated against porcine circovirus type 2. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232: 906-912, 2008.
Hu J, Ni Y, Meng XJ, Zhang C. Expression and purification of a chimeric protein consisting of the ectodomains of M and GP5 proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). J Chromatogr B 911: 43-48, 2012.
Huang YL, Deng MC, Chang CY. Study on the Co-infection of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in the Commercial Pig Farms. Exp Rep AHRI 47: 77-86, 2012.
Johnson CR, Griggs TF, Gnanandarajah J, Murtaugh MP. Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses. J Gen Virol 92: 1107-1116, 2011.
Karniychuk UU, Saha D, Geldhof M, Vanhee M, Cornillie P, Van Den Broeck W, Nauwynck HJ. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes apoptosis during its replication in fetal implantation sites. Microb Pathog 51: 194-202, 2011.
Kim J, Chung HK, Chae C. Association of porcine circovirus 2 with porcine respiratory disease complex. Vet J 166: 251-256, 2003.
21
Kimman TG, Cornelissen L a, Moormann RJ, Rebel JMJ, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N. Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology. Vaccine: 27 3704-3718, 2009.
Kixmöller M, Ritzmann M, Eddicks M, Saalmüller A, Elbers K, Fachinger V. Reduction of PMWS-associated clinical signs and co-infections by vaccination against PCV2. Vaccine 26: 3443-3451, 2008.
Labarque GG, Nauwynck HJ, Van Reeth K, Pensaert MB. Effect of cellular changes and onset of humoral immunity on the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs. J Gen Virol 81: 1327-1334, 2000.
Lee SH, Tsai KR, Chang JC, Tu YC, Chang MC, Ting LJ, Lee MS, Chen YP, Hsu WC, Chuang WC, Chen CL, Jong MH. Epidemiology of the Important Animal Diseases and Evaluation of Control Measures. Exp Rep AHRI 46: 61-76, 2012.
Lee SH, Tu YC, Hsu WC. General Discussion of Global Prevalence and Vaccine Application in Porcine Circovirus Type 2. Livestock Magazine 85: 53-64, 2011.
Lee SM, Kleiboeker SB. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway. Virology 365: 419-434, 2007.
Leslie M. Solution to Vaccine Mystery Starts to Crystallize. Science. 341, 26-27. 2013
Li G, Huang J, Jiang P, Li Y, Jiang W, Wang X. Suppression of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in MARC-145 cells by shRNA targeting ORF1 region. Virus Genes 35: 673-679, 2007.
Liljeqvist S, Stahl S, Andreoni C, Binz H, Uhlen M, Murby M. Fusions to the cholera toxin B subunit: influence on pentamerization and GM1 binding. Journal of immunological methods 210: 125-135, 1997.
Lopez OJ and Osorio FA. Role of neutralizing antibodies in PRRSV protective immunity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 102: 155-163, 2004.
Lunney JK, Benfield DA, Rowland RRR. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: an update on an emerging and re-emerging viral disease of swine. Virus Res 154: 1-6, 2010.
Maes D, Nauwynck H, Rijsselaere T, Mateusen B, Vyt P, de Kruif a, Van Soom a. Diseases in swine transmitted by artificial insemination: an overview. Theriogenology 70: 1337–1345, 2008.
22
Male D. Antigen Presentation. In: Male D, Brostoff J, Roth DB, Roitt I, ed. Immunology. Elsevier Saunders, Amsterdam, 143-155, 2012.
Mankertz A, Persson F, Mankertz J, Blaess G, Buhk HJ. Mapping and characterization of the origin of DNA replication of porcine circovirus. J Virol 71: 2562-2566, 1997.
Mason HS, Lam DM, Arntzen CJ. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89: 11745-11749, 1992.
Meier WA, Galeota J, Osorio FA, Husmann RJ, Schnitzlein WM, Zuckermann F a. Gradual development of the interferon-γ response of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection or vaccination. Virology 309: 18-31, 2003.
Meulenberg JJ, Hulst MM, de Meijer EJ, Moonen PL, den Besten A, De Kluyver EP, Wensvoort G, Moormann RJ. Lelystad virus, the causative agent of porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (PEARS), is related to LDV and EAV. Virology 192: 62-72, 1993.
Meulenberg JJ, Petersen-den Besten A, De Kluyver EP, Moormann RJ, Schaaper WM, Wensvoort G, Besten AP-D. Characterization of proteins encoded by ORFs 2 to 7 of Lelystad virus. Virology 206: 155-163, 1995.
Meulenberg JJ, Van Nieuwstadt AP, Van Essen-Zandbergen A, Bos-de Ruijter JN, Langeveld JP, Meloen RH. Localization and fine mapping of antigenic sites on the nucleocapsid protein N of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus with monoclonal antibodies. Virology 252: 106-114, 1998.
Meyns T, Maes D, Calus D, Ribbens S, Dewulf J, Chiers K, de Kruif a, Cox E, Decostere a, Haesebrouck F. Interactions of highly and low virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolates with the respiratory tract of pigs. Vet Microbiol 120: 87-95, 2007.
Murtaugh MP and Genzow M. Immunological solutions for treatment and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Vaccine 29: 8192-8204, 2011.
Murtaugh MP, Xiao Z, Zuckermann F. Immunological responses of swine to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Viral immunology 15: 533-547, 2002.
Nilubol D, Platt KB, Halbur PG, Torremorell M, Harris DL. The effect of a killed porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine treatment on virus shedding in previously PRRSV infected pigs. Vet Microbiol 102: 11-18, 2004.
23
OIE. World animal health information database. http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wahid.php/Diseaseinformation/Diseasedistributionmap, 2014.
Opriessnig T, Giménez-Lirola LG, Halbur PG. Polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs. Anim Health Res Rev 12: 133-148, 2011.
Opriessnig T, Halbur PG, Yoon KJ, Pogranichniy RM, Harmon KM, Evans R, Key KF, Pallares FJ, Thomas P, Meng XJ. Comparison of molecular and biological characteristics of a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine (ingelvac PRRS MLV), the parent strain of the vaccine (ATCC VR2332), ATCC VR2385, and two recent field isolates o. J Virol 76: 11837-11844, 2002.
Opriessnig T, McKeown NE, Harmon KL, Meng XJ, Halbur PG. Porcine circovirus type 2 infection decreases the efficacy of a modified live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 923-929, 2006.
Opriessnig T, Meng XJ, Halbur PG. Porcine circovirus type 2 associated disease: update on current terminology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. J Vet Diagn Invest 19: 591-615, 2007.
Osorio FA, Galeota JA, Nelson E, Brodersen B, Doster A, Wills R, Zuckermann F, Laegreid WW. Passive transfer of virus-specific antibodies confers protection against reproductive failure induced by a virulent strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and establishes sterilizing immunity. Virology 302: 9-20, 2002.
Ostrowski M, Galeota JA, Jar AM, Platt KB, Osorio FA, Lopez OJ, Irol J V. Identification of neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes in the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5 ectodomain. J Virol 76: 4241-4250, 2002.
Park C, Oh Y, Seo HW, Han K, Chae C. Comparative effects of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in a PCV2-PRRSV challenge model. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20: 369-376, 2013.
Pejsak Z, Podgórska K, Truszczyński M, Karbowiak P, Stadejek T. Efficacy of different protocols of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in a farm affected by postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 33: 1-5, 2010.
Pirzadeh B and Dea S. Immune response in pigs vaccinated with plasmid DNA encoding ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Gen Virol 79: 989-999, 1998.
24
Prieto C, Martínez-Lobo FJ, Díez-Fuertes F, Aguilar-Calvo P, Simarro I, Castro JM. Immunisation of pigs with a major envelope protein sub-unit vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) results in enhanced clinical disease following experimental challenge. Vet J 189: 323-329, 2011.
Razin S, Yogev D, Naot Y. Molecular biology and pathogenicity of mycoplasmas. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62: 1094-1156, 1998.
Rice J, Ainley WM, Shewen P. Plant-made vaccines: biotechnology and immunology in animal health. Animal health research reviews / Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases 6: 199-209, 2005.
Rose DL, Tully JG, Wittler RG. Taxonomy of Some Swine Mycoplasmas: Mycoplasma suipneumoniae Goodwin et al. 1965, a Later, Objective Synonym of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Mare and Switzer 1965, and the Status of Mycoplasma flocculare Meyling and Friis 1972. Int J Syst Bacteriol 29: 83-91, 1979.
Rosell C, Segalés J, Domingo M, Segales J. Hepatitis and Staging of Hepatic Damage in Pigs Naturally Infected with Porcine Circovirus Type 2. Vet Pathol 37: 687-692, 2000.
Rovira A, Balasch M, Segalés J, García L, Plana-Durán J, Rosell C, Ellerbrok H, Mankertz A, Domingo M. Experimental inoculation of conventional pigs with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus 2. J Virol 76: 3232-3239, 2002.
Royaee AR, Husmann RJ, Dawson HD, Calzada-Nova G, Schnitzlein WM, Zuckermann FA, Lunney JK. Deciphering the involvement of innate immune factors in the development of the host response to PRRSV vaccination. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 102: 199-216, 2004.
Schafer ER, Oneal MJ, Madsen ML, Minion FC. Global transcriptional analysis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae following exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Microbiology 153: 3785-3790, 2007.
Scortti M, Prieto C, Alvarez E, Simarro I, Castro JM. Failure of an inactivated vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome to protect gilts against a heterologous challenge with PRRSV. The Veterinary record 161: 809-813, 2007.
Sibila M, Calsamiglia M, Vidal D, Badiella L, Aldaz A, Jensen JC. Dynamics of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in 12 farms with different production systems. Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire 68: 12-18, 2004.
25
Sibila M, Fort M, Nofrarías M, Pérez de Rozas A, Galindo-Cardiel I, Mateu E, Segalés J. Simultaneous porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae co-inoculation does not potentiate disease in conventional pigs. J Comp Pathol 147: 285-295, 2012.
Sinha a, Shen HG, Schalk S, Beach NM, Huang YW, Halbur PG, Meng XJ, Opriessnig T. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection at the time of porcine circovirus type 2 vaccination has no impact on vaccine efficacy. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17: 1940-1945, 2010.
Snijder EJ, Kikkert M, Fang Y. Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. The Journal of general virology 94: 2141-2163, 2013.
Suarez P, Diaz-Guerra M, Prieto C, Esteban M, Castro JM, Nieto A, Ortin J. Open reading frame 5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus as a cause of virus-induced apoptosis. Journal of virology 70: 2876-2882, 1996.
Sun Y, Han M, Kim C, Calvert JG, Yoo D. Interplay between interferon-mediated innate immunity and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Viruses 4: 424-446, 2012.
Tajima M and Yagihashi T. Interaction of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with the porcine respiratory epithelium as observed by electron microscopy. Infect Immun 37: 1162-1169, 1982.
Terpstra C, Wensvoort G, Pol JM. Experimental reproduction of porcine epidemic abortion and respiratory syndrome (mystery swine disease) by infection with Lelystad virus: Koch’s postulates fulfilled. Vet Q 13: 131–136, 1991.
Thacker EL, Halbur PG, Ross RF, Thanawongnuwech R, Thacker BJ. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae potentiation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced pneumonia. J Clin Microbiol 37: 620-627, 1999.
Thanawongnuwech R, Rungsipipat A, Disatian S, Saiyasombat R, Napakanaporn S, Halbur PG. Immunohistochemical staining of IFN-gamma positive cells in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected lungs. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 91: 73-77, 2003.
Thanawongnuwech R and Suradhat S. Taming PRRSV: revisiting the control strategies and vaccine design. Virus Res 154: 133-140, 2010.
USDA. Swine Meat Production by Country in 1000 MT CWE. http://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?commodity=swine-meat&;graph=production, 2014.
26
Van Reeth K, Labarque G, Nauwynck H, Pensaert M. Differential production of proinflammatory cytokines in the pig lung during different respiratory virus infections: correlations with pathogenicity. Res Vet Sci 67: 47-52, 1999.
Vézina SA, Loemba H, Fournier M, Dea S, Archambault D. Antibody production and blastogenic response in pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Can J Vet Res 60: 94-99, 1996.
Wang G, Song T, Yu Y, Liu Y, Shi W, Wang S, Rong F, Dong J, Liu H, Cai X, Zhou E-M. Immune responses in piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 142: 170-178, 2011.
Welch SK, Calvert JG. A brief review of CD163 and its role in PRRSV infection. Virus research 154: 98-103, 2010.
Yang CY, Chang TC, Lin CN, Tsai CP and Chiou MT. Study of infectious agents involved in porcine respiratory disease complex in Taiwan. Taiwan Vet J 33: 40-46, 2007.
Young B, Dewey C, Poljak Z, Rosendal T, Carman S. Clinical signs and their association with herd demographics and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) control strategies in PRRS PCR-positive swine herds in Ontario. Can J Vet Res 74: 170-177, 2010.
Zhang Q, Young TF, Ross RF. Identification and characterization of a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae adhesin. Infect Immun 63: 1013-1019, 1995.
Zimmerman JJ, Benfield D a, Murtaugh MP, Osorio F, Stevenson GW, Torremorell M. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Porcine Arterivirus). In: Straw BE, Zimmer-man JJ, D’Allaire S, Taylor DJ, ed. Disease of Swine. 9th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Iowa, USA, 387-417, 2006.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊