跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/06 12:08
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃柏憲
研究生(外文):Huang, Po-Hsien
論文名稱:遊客觀光倫理之概念化研究
論文名稱(外文):Conceptualizing the tourism ethics of tourists
指導教授:林若慧林若慧引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Jo-Hui
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:觀光休閒管理研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:觀光休閒學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:觀光倫理倫理守則內容分析
外文關鍵詞:tourism ethiccode of ethiccontent analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:558
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
觀光旅遊已成為全球發展最快速的經濟活動之一,旅遊人數亦逐年不斷地增長,世界各國無不盡力推廣與發展觀光產業。隨著近年來地球資源的逐漸減少、生態環境的潛在破壞危機等因素,人們開始關注到遊憩資源的永續發展,致使觀光產業的倫理問題逐漸受到重視。本研究旨在探討遊客觀光倫理的內涵,並將其概念化,研究共可分成二個部分,第一部分:針對國內外相關的觀光資源管理單位與協會機構所訂定的20份遊客規範與守則,應用文件分析法與內容分析法進行資料分析歸納,瞭解遊客的觀光倫理之構面與類型;第二部分:藉由遊客觀光倫理構面之分類設計成訪談題綱,共深度訪談10名旅遊活動中的權益關係人,以探討遊客觀光倫理的內涵並進行概念化。
研究結果指出:遊客的觀光倫理包含四大構面:(1)社會文化-態度;(2)社會文化-行為;(3)環境資源-態度;與(4)環境資源-行為等。本研究所概念化的遊客觀光倫理可以提供遊憩資源管理單位作為遊客教育、導覽解說活動或後續相關研究之參考;以遊客觀光倫理的概念化建立遊客的環境友善概念,進而引導他們自發性的負責任旅遊行為。

Globally, tourism has become one of fastest pacing economy activities. The number of people travelling grows over the past year, countries spare efforts to promote and develop tourism industry. Because of the reduction of earth resources and the potential destruction of ecological environment, people started to pay more attention to sustainable development of recreation resources. The ethical issues of tourism industry was be gradually emphasized. The porpose of this study aims to explore and conceptualize the meanings of tourists’ ethic. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 discussed and confirmed the demensions and categories of tousists’ tourism ethic, using document analysis and content analysis method. Study 2 explored the meaning of tourists’ ethic with an in-depth interview approach.
The results of research show that the ethic of tourists including four demensions: social culture - attitude, social culture - behavior, environmental resource - attitude and environmental resource- behavior. The findings can provide suggestions for travel agencies or tourism industry how to educate and interpret the tourists, and provide references for the future researches and establish tourists’ concept of environment-friendly, and then to perform spontaneously responsible tourism behaviors.

中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
致謝辭 III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章  緒論 1
  第一節  研究背景 1
  第二節  研究問題與目的 10
  第三節  研究內容與流程 13
第二章  文獻回顧 15
  第一節  倫理道德 15
  第二節  觀光倫理 26
  第三節  權益關係人 42
第三章  研究設計 49
  第一節  研究方法 49
  第二節  以內容分析法歸納遊客守則 54
  第三節  訪談手冊與提綱 62
  第四節  研究範圍與抽樣 64
  第五節  資料分析方法 65
第四章  研究結果與分析 69
  第一節  社會文化-態度構面 69
  第二節  社會文化-行為構面 74
  第三節  環境資源-態度構面 79
  第四節  環境資源-行為構面 83
第五章  結論與建議 88
  第一節  研究結論 89
  第二節  管理意涵 93
  第三節  研究限制與未來研究建議 96
參考文獻 97
附錄 121

一、中文部分
尤靖雅(2005),企業倫理規範、倫理評價、倫理判斷與行為意圖關係之研究-以房屋仲介從業人員為例,國立屏東商業技術學院不動產經營所碩士論文。
方志華(2003),關懷倫理學的道德教育方法,鵝湖月刊,340(10),33-43。
王石番(1999),傳播內容分析法-理論與實證,台北:幼獅。
王臣瑞(1980),倫理學,台北:學生書局。
王昭雄、陳得發、蔡惠丞、鄭燕芬(2008),企業倫理守則、工作滿足與組織承諾關係之研究-以直銷為例,中華管理評論,11(4),1-34。
王鑫(2002),發展永續旅遊的途徑之一:生態旅遊,應用倫理通訊,24,28-43。
交通部觀光局(2002),生態旅遊一般性規範彙編,台北:交通部觀光局。
交通部觀光局(2011),觀光統計圖表,交通部觀光局行政資訊系統[線上資料],來源:http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/public/public.aspx?no =315 [2011, Dec. 09]。
交通部觀光局(2014),觀光統計圖表,交通部觀光局行政資訊系統,[線上資料],來源:http://admin.taiwan.net.tw/public/public.aspx?no =315 [2014, Feb. 22]。
朱芳芳(2009),淺談高校學生管理的核心所在:道德管理,商情,50,41-41。
朱芝緯(2000),永續性生態旅遊遊客守則之研究-以墾丁國家公園為例,國立台灣大學地理學研究所碩士論文。
余坤東(2008),企業倫理:商業的道德規範,台北:前程文化。
吳成豐、吳文貴(2006),電子商務倫理之研究:以臺灣旅遊業為例,科技管理學刊,11(1),63-94。
吳崇旗、王偉琴、周靈山(2009),建構以無痕山林準則為架構之戶外環境行為量表,休閒產業管理學刊,2(1),14-27。
沈清松(1996),倫理學理論與專業倫理教育,通識教育季刊,3(2), 1-17。
周宛蓉、范熾文(2011),學校倫理氣候:意涵、類型、影響與形塑策略,研習知訊,28(3),99-106。
周明智(2004),餐旅倫理對管理績效之影響研究,企業倫理研究與教學研討會會議論文集。
周淑惠(2005),從業人員對生態旅遊知覺與自我規範態度之研究,中國文化大學觀光事業研究所碩士論文。
林火旺(1997),倫理學,台北:國立空中大學。
林火旺(2009),基本倫理學,台北:三民書局。
林玉娟、葉匡時(1996),企業倫理認知之實證研究,人力資源學報,6,35-55。
林怡君、郭如秀,(2007),觀光系學生對觀光旅館工作環境倫理困境認知之探討,人文社會科學研究,1(2),1-16。
林燈燦(2006),觀光導遊與領隊:理論與實務(第七版),台北:五南圖書出版公司。
金珮(2008),登山團體成員學習Leave No Trace之行動能力轉變歷程,國立臺灣師範大學環境教育研究所碩士論文。
邱文松(2002),企業倫理課程對商學院學生道德考量、職業道德認知與倫理價值觀之影響,私立中原大學會計學系碩士論文。
洪秀菊(2008),聯合國世界觀光組織(UNWTO)永續觀光發展的規範分析,TASPAA夥伴關係與永續發展國際學術研討會。
范麗群、周祖城、石金濤(2005),關於倫理守則對企業道德行為影響的探討,江西師範大學學報,38(4),28-31。
張樑治、余嬪、陳朝圳(2008),亂丟垃圾成因:綜合遊客道德情緒與森林遊樂區防衛空間因子之觀點,中華林學季刊,41(1),77-92。
孫震(2004),理當如此-企業永續經營之道,台北:天下遠見。
徐仙如(2010),國內推動低碳旅遊之研究-以台南市古蹟旅遊為例,國立政治大學公共行政研究所碩士論文。
徐宜歆(2008),無痕山林教育宣導手冊,台北:行政院農委會林務局。
袁世樽(1998),行銷人員行銷道德決策過程之研究,中山大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。
高凌霞(1998),主觀的道德規範-良心,輔仁大學倫理課程委員會編,專業倫理論文集(二)/增修版,119-131。
張帆(2010),國外對負責任旅遊的研究維度述評,旅遊論壇,3(5),589-594。
張均螢(2011),上市櫃公司應重視倫理長與倫理守則的設立,國立雲林科技大學企業管理系碩士班碩士論文。
張廷玉(1979),《明史.儒林列傳》卷283列傳第一百七十一:儒林二,台北:頂文書局。
張淑青(2010),探索生態旅遊行為意圖的影響因素-遊客創新、風險知覺、興趣、涉入與支持度的關係,戶外遊憩研究,23(2),53-77。
張維修(2007),倫理性組織文化與領導行為之相關性初探,國立政治大學公共行政學系碩士論文。
張儷瀛(2011),綠色觀光體驗、旅遊意象與旅遊態度關係之研究-以西拉雅國家風景區為例,國立高雄餐旅大學旅遊管理研究所碩士論文。
教育部國語辭典(2011),重編國語辭典修訂本,教育部國語推行委員會,[線上資料],來源:http://dict.revised.moe.edu.tw/ [2011, November 2]。
曹勝雄、林濰榕(2011),冒險遊憩中的挑戰來源,戶外遊憩研究,24(1),57-82。
許士軍(1991),企業倫理與企業發展-兼論引進外籍勞工之倫理觀點,當前產業發展面臨的人力問題與因應之道研討會論文集。
許倬雲(1995),現代社會的職業倫理,台北:洪建全基金會。
陳世賢(2009),遊客個人碳足跡與低碳旅遊行為意向之研究-以坪林鄉為例,私立逢甲大學景觀與遊憩碩士學位學程碩士論文。
陳向明(2002),社會科學質的研究,台北:五南。
陳德禹(1998),現代行政倫理體系初探,兩岸學術研討會-行政現代化。
陳錦玉、黃福才,(2011),基於企業倫理觀點之觀光永續發展探討:以金門國家公園為例,管理實務與理論研究,5(2),43-66。
黃光國(1996),專業倫理教育的基本理念,通識教育,3(2),19-32。
黃光雄,(2002),質性教育研究,台北:濤石文化。
楊建夫、周慧琍(2007),休閒遊憩概論,台北:華都文化。
楊國鑫(2002),生態旅遊與永續發展:試論生態旅遊的商業倫理,生態旅遊學術論文發表會論文集,農委會林務局,1-13。
楊國鑫(2007),觀光倫理:談景點居民的人權,應用倫理研究通訊,44,52-60。
楊國鑫(2010),觀光產業的倫理問題探究,國立中央大學哲學研究所博士論文。
葉保強(2002),建構企業的社會契約,台北:鵝湖出版社。
劉虹彤(2005),永續海岸觀光資源系統評估架構之設計,國立成功大學都市計畫研究所碩士論文。
劉錦源、廖靖尹、徐啟芳(2013, August 14),遊客占路、丟垃圾,農民喊砍金城武樹,TVBS,[線上資料],來源:https://tw.news.yahoo.com/%E9%81%8A%E5%AE%A2%E5%8D%A0%E8%B7%AF-%E4%B8%9F%E5%9E%83%E5%9C%BE-%E8%BE%B2%E6%B0%91%E5%96%8A%E7%A0%8D%E9%87%91%E5%9F%8E%E6%AD%A6%E6%A8%B9-044500207.html
潘小慧(2006),德行倫理學中的人文主義精神-從得適當譯名談起,哲學與文化,33(1),17-30。
潘淑滿(2003),質性研究:理論與應用,台北:心理出版社。
歐用生(1997),教育研究法,台北:師大書院。
蔡甫昌、李明濱(2002),當代生命倫理學,醫學教育,6(4),381-395。
蔡進雄(2003),論校長如何展現倫理領導,人文及社會學科教學通訊,14(1),25-36。
蔡馨慧(2007),先秦儒家五倫思想的現代轉變,私立南華大學文學所碩士論文。
鄭健雄、施欣儀(2007),新鄉村主義與鄉村旅遊發展,鄉村旅遊研究,1 (2),1-17。
蕭國鐘(1993),企業倫理,逢甲學報,26,143-159。
謝芳、廖筠(2008),基於企業社會責任的旅遊業公司倫理規範治理探討,現代財金,28 (9),79-83。
謝淑芬(2002),觀光心理學,台北:五南出版公司。
簡廷倫(2009),從商業倫理探討台灣民宿旅遊業,國立中央大學哲學研究所碩士論文。
顏建賢、江依芳(2005),農漁會建構綠色旅遊服務供應系統之探討,農訓雜誌,8,40-43。
釋昭慧(2003),佛教規範倫理學,台北:法界。

二、英文部分
Allen, L. R., Long, P. T., Perdue, R. R. &; Kieselbach, S. (1988). The impact of tourism development on residents' perceptions of community life. Journal of Travel Research, 21(1). 16-21.
Altheide, D. L. (1996). Qualitative media analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ap, J. &; Crompton, J. L. (1998). Developing and testing a tourism impact scale. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2). 120-130.
APEC (2002). Public/Private partnerships for sustainable tourism: Delivering a sustainability strategy for tourism destinations. APEC Cecretariat.
Bamberg, S. (2003). How does environmental concern influence specific environmentally related behaviors? A new answer to an old question. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(1). 21-32.
Barelson, B. (1952). Content Analysis in Communication Research. Glencoe, Ill:Free Press.
Beauchamp, T. L. &; Childress, J. F. (1979). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Beauchamp, T. L. &; Childress, J. F. (1989). Principles of biomedical ethics. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Berenbeim, R. E. (1992). The corporate ethics test. Business and Society Review ,31(1). 77-80.
Blackstock, K. L., White, V., McCrum, G., Scott, A. &; Hunter, C. (2008). Measuring responsibility: An appraisal of a scottish national park’s sustainable tourism indicators. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(3). 276-297.
Blamey, R. K. (1997). Ecotourism: The search for an operational definition. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 5(2). 109-130.
Bitner, M. J., Booms, B. H., &; Tetreault, M. S. (1990). The service encounter: Diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents. Journal of Marketing, 54(1). 71-84.
Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods (2nd eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bulter, J. R. (1992). Ecotourism: Its changing face and evolving philosophy. IVth World Conference on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela.
Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1996). Tourism, Ecotourism and Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland.
Ceballos-Lascurain, H. (1998). Introduction, In K. Lindberg, M.E. Wood, &; Engeldrum, D. (Eds.). Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers, pp. 7-10. The Ecotourism Society, North Bennington.
Cheong, S. &; Miller, M. (2000). Power and tourism: A Foucauldian observation. Annals of Tourism Research, 27 (2). 371-90.
Clarkson, M. B. (1995). A stakeholder framework for analyzing and evaluating corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 20(1). 92-117.
Cohen, E. (1985). The tourist guide: The origins, structure and dynamics of a role. Annals of Tourism Research, 12 (1). 5-29.
Cooper, D. R. &; Schindler, P. S.(2006). 企業研究方法(第九版),楊雪蘭、宋兆賢(2008)譯,台北:華泰文化。
Crawford-Welch, S. &; McCleary, K. W. (1992). An identification of the subject areas and research techniques used in five hospitality-related journals. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 11(2). 155-167.
D’Amore, L. (1993). A code of ethics and guidelines for socially and environmentally responsible tourism. Journal of Travel Research 31(3). 64-66.
Dann, G., Nash, D. &; Pearce, P. L. (1988). Methodology in tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 15(1). 1-28.
Dawson, J., Stewart, E. J., Lemelinc, H. &; Scott, D. (2010). The carbon cost of polar bear viewing tourism in Churchill, Canada. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(3). 319-336.
Denhardt, K. G. (1991). Unearthing the moral foundations of public administration: Honor, benevolence, and justice. James S. Bowman (eds.). Ethical Frontiers In Public Management, 91-113.
Denzin, N. K. (1978). The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dickinson, J. E., Robbins, D. &; Lumsdon, L. (2010). Holiday travel discourses and climate change. Journal of Transport Geography, 18(3). 482-489.
Dolnicar, S., Crouch, G. I. &; Long, P. (2008). Environment-friendly tourists: What do we really know about them? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2). 197-210.
Durgee, J. F., Gina, C. &; Robert, W. V. (1996). Observation: Translating values into product wants. Journal of Advertising Research, 11(1). 90-99.
Ewing, A. C (1953). Ethics. London: English Universities.
Farrell, B. J. &; Cobbin, D. M. (2000). A content analysis of codes of ethics from fifty-seven national accounting organizations. Business Ethics: A European Review, 9(3). 180-190.
Fennell D. A. (2006). Tourism ethics. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Fennell, D. &; Malloy, D. C. (1999). Measuring the ethical nature of tourism operators. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4). 928-943.
Fennell, D. A. (2003). Ecotourism: An introduction (2nd Eds.). London: Routledge.
Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, J. &; Ferrell, L. (2006). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases (7th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Pub.
Ferrell, O. C., Gresham, L. G. &; Fraedrich, J. (1989). A synthesis of ethical decision marking modes for marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 9(2). 55-64.
Fleckenstein, M. P. &; Huebsch, P. (1999). Ethics in tourism-reality or hallucination. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(1).137-142.
Francis J. &; Goodwin H. (2003). Ethical and responsible tourism: Consumer trends in the U.K. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3). 271-284.
Frankel, M. (1989). Professional codes: Why, how, and with what impact? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(2/3). 109-115.
Frankena, W. K. (1973). Ethics (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs. N.J: Prentice Hall.
Freeman, R. E. (1984). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman Publishers.
Freeman, R. E. (1994). The politics of stakeholder theory: Some future directions. Business Ethics Quarterly, 4(4). 409-421.
Genot, H. (1995). Voluntary environmental codes of conduct in the tourism sector. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 3(1). 166-172.
Glaser, B. &; Strauss, A. (1999). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine Transaction.
Gilman, S. C. (2005). Ethics codes and codes of conduct as tools for promoting an ethical and professional public service: Comparative successes and lessons. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Goeldner, C. R. &; Ritchie Brent, J. R. (2006). Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley &; Sons.
Gove, P. B. (1986). Webster’s third new international dictionary of the English language unabridged. Springfield: Merriam-Webster Inc.
Gula, R. M. (2000). Moral discernment. New Jersey: Paulist Press.
Gursoy, D. &; Rutherford, D. G.(2004). Host attitudes toward tourism: An improved structural model. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3). 495-516.
Hammersley, M. (1992). What’s wrong with ethnography? Methodological explorations. London, England: Routledge.
Healy, M. &; Iles, J. (2002). The establishment and enforcement of codes. Journal of Business Ethics, 39(1/2). 117-124.
Hendrix, S. (2003, May 25). Burma in the Balance; Should You Go? The Politics of Travel to Asia’s Most Controversial Destination. Washington Post, p. 101. Available: http://www.highbeam.com /doc/1P2-258240.html [2013, July 16]
Hendee, J. &; Dawson, C. (2002). Wilderness management: Stewardship and protection of resources and values (3rd Edition). Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing.
Hernández, M. R. M., Muñoz Galle, P. A. &; Santos Requejo, L., (2007). The moderating role of familiarity in rural tourism in Spain. Tourism Management, 28(4). 951-964.
Hetzer, N. D. (1965). Environment, tourism, culture. Links, 1(2). 1-3.
Hill, C. W. L. &; Jones, T. M. (1992). A stakeholder: Agency theory. Journal of Management Studies, 29(2). 131-154.
Holden, A. (2005). Achieving a sustainable relationship between common pool resources and tourism: The role of environmental ethics. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 13(4). 339-352.
Holmes, R. (1992). Challenges in environmental ethics. In Environment in Question: Ethics and Global Issues, D. Cooper and J. Palmer, (eds.). pp. 135-146. London: Routledge.
Hong, S., Kim, S. &; Kim, J. (2003). Implications of potential green tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(2). 323-341.
Hosmer, L. T. (1987). The Ethics of Management. Irwin.
Hughes, G. (1995). The sultural sonstruction of sustainable sourism. Tourism Management, 16(1). 49-59.
Hudson, S. (2007). To go or not to go? Ethical perspectives on tourism in an outpost of tyranny. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(4). 385-396.
Hultsman, J. (1995). Just tourism: An ethical framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(3). 553-567.
Hummels, H. (1998). Organizing ethics: A stakeholder debate. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(13). 1403-1419.
Hunt, S. D. &; Vitell, S. (1986). A general theory of marketing ethics. Journal of macromarketing, 6(1). 5-16.
Hunt, S. D. &; Vitell, S. M. (1993). The general theory of marketing ethics: A retrospective and revision. In Ethics in Marketing, edited by Smith, N. C. and Quelch, J. A., pp. 775-784. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
IUCN (2008). Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Cite: http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads /sustainability_presentation___maria_ana_borges_14_01_10.ppt [2011, December 11].
Janssens, D., Cools, M., Moons, E., Wets, G., Arentze, T. A. &; Timmermans, H. J. P. (2009). Road pricing as an impetus for environment-friendly travel behavior: Results from a stated adaptation experiment. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2115(7). 50-59.
Jones, A. (1987). Green tourism. Tourism Management, 8(4). 354-356.
Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision making by individuals in organizations: An issues-contingent model. Academy of Management Review, 16(2). 366-395.
Jorgensen, D. L. (1989). 參與觀察法,王昭正、朱瑞淵(1999)譯,台北:弘智文化事業有限公司。
Kaptein, M. &; Wempe, J. (2002). The Balanced Company: A Theory of Corporate Integrity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Karwacki, J. &; Boyd, C. (1995). Ethics and ecotourism. Business Ethics, 4(4). 225-232.
Kassarjian, H. H. (1977). Content analysis in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 4(1). 8-18.
Kazimierczak, M. (2006). Code of ethics for tourism. Studies in Physical Culture &; Tourism, 13(1). 93-97.
Keane, M. J., Brophy, P. &; Cuddy, M. P. (1992). Strategic management of island tourism: The Aran islands. Tourism Management, 13(4). 406-414.
Keaveney, S. M. (1995). Customer switching behavior in service industries: An exploratory study. Journal of Marketing, 59(2). 71-82.
Kokkranikal, J., McLellan, R. &; Baum, T. (2003). Island tourism and sustainability: A case study of the lakshadweep islands. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(5). 426-447.
Kottke, J. L. &; Pelletier, K. L. (2004). Ethics and values in industrial-organizational psychology. Personnel Psychology, 57(4). 1044-1048.
Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kutay, K. (1989). The new ethic in adventure travel. Buzzworm: The Environmental Journal, 1(4). 30-36.
Lane, B. (1994a). What is rural tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism , 2(1). 7-21.
Lane, B. (1994b). Sustainable rural tourism strategies: A tool for development and conservation. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2(1/2). 102-111.
Lansing, P. &; Vries, P. D. (2007). Sustainable tourism: Ethical alternative or marketing ploy? Journal of Business Ethics, 72(1). 77-85
Lea, J. (1993). Tourism development ethics in the third world. Annals of Tourism Research, 20(4). 701-715.
Lee, Choong-Ki &; Back, Ki-Joon. (2006). Examining structural relationships among perceived impact, benefit, and support for casino development based on 4 year longitudinal data. Tourism Management, 27(3). 466-480.
Leopold, A. (1949). A Sand County Almanac. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lindberg, K. &; Hawkins, D. E. (1993). Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers. North Bennington, VT: The Ecotourism Society.
Lovelock, B. (2008). Ethical travel decisions travel agents and human rights. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(2). 338-358.
Macbeth, J. (2005). Towards an ethics platform for tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(4). 962-984.
Macklin, R. (2003). Bioethics, vulnerability, and protection. Bioethics, 17(5/6). 472-486.
Malloy, D. C. &; Fennell, D. A. (1998). Codes of ethics and tourism: An exploratory content analysis. Tourism Management, 19(5). 453-461.
Marcus, A. A. (1993). Business &; Society: Ethics, Government, and The World Economy. Homewood, IL: lrwin.
Marion, J. L. &; Reid, S. E. (2007). Minimizing visitor impacts to protected areas: The efficacy of low impact education programmes. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(1). 5-27.
McBoyle, G. (1996). Green tourism and Scottish distilleries. Tourism Management, 17(4). 255-263.
McCool, S. F. (1995). Linking tourism, the environmental, and concepts of sustainability: Setting the stage. In McCool, S. F. &; Watson, A. E. (Eds.). Comps. Linking Tourism, the Environmental, and Sustainability. Ogden, UT: USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station.
McCracken, J., Martin, W. &; Shaw, B. (1998). Virtue ethics and the parable of the sadhu. Journal of Business Ethics, 17(1). 25-38.
McKercher, B. (1993). Some gundamental truths about tourism: understanding tourism's social and environmental impacts. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1). 6-16.
Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R. &; Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of Management Review, 22(4). 853-886.
Mitchell, R. E. &; Reid, D. G. (2001). Community integration: Island tourism in Peru. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(1). 113-139.
Mitroff, I. I. (1983). Stakeholders of the organizational mind. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Miller, G. &; Twining-Ward, L. (2005). Monitoring for a sustainable tourism transition: The challenge of developing and using indicators (1st edn). Wallingford: CABI.
Moore, S. A. &; Rodger, K. (2010). Wildlife tourism as a common pool resource issue: enabling conditions for sustainability governance. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(7). 831-844.
Mueller, H. &; Kaufmann, E. L. (2001). Wellness tourism: Market analysis of a special health tourism segment and implications for the hotel industry. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7(1). 5-17.
Müller, H. (1994). The thorny path to sustainable tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2(3). 131-136.
OECD (1996). Ethics in the public service: Current issues and practice. Paris: OECD.
Oppermann, M. (1996). Rural tourism in southern germany. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(1). 86-102.
Ouchi, W. (1980). Markets, bureaucracies and clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25(1). 129-141.
PATA (2012). PATA Traveller’s Code, Pacific Asia Travel Association, Cite: http://sjpata.org/PATA/html/archive.html [2012, March 08].
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. California: Sage Publications.
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. California: Sage Publications.
Payne, D. &; Dimanche, F. (1996). Towards a code of conduct for the tourism industry: An ethics model. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(9). 997-1007.
Perkins, H. E. (2010). Measuring love and care for nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4). 455-463.
Pomfret, G. (2006). Mountaineering adventure tourists: A conceptual framework for research. Tourism Management, 27(1). 113-123.
Reinharz, S. (1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rea, K. (2005). Trash nation. Parks and Recreation, 40(9). 116-121.
Riley, R. (1995). Prestige-worthy tourism behaviour. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(3). 630-649.
Rokeach, M. J. (1973). The nature of human Value. New York: The Free Press.
Ross, G. F. (1993). Ideal and actual images of backpacker visitors to northern nustralia. Journal of travel Research, 32(2). 54-57.
Ross, S. &; Wall, G. (1999a). Ecotourism: Towards congruence between theory and practice. Tourism Management, 20(1). 123-132.
Ross, S. &; Wall, G. (1999b). Evaluating ecotourism: The case of North Sulawasi, Indonesia. Tourism Management, 20(6). 673-682.
Ronan, W. W. &; Latham, G. P. (1974). The reliability and validity of the 148 critical incident technique: A closer look. Studies in Personnel Psychology, 6(1). 53-64.
Rubin, A. &; Babbie, E. (1997). 研究方法:社會工作暨人文科學領域的運用,趙碧華、朱美珍(2000)譯,台北:學富文化。
Ryan, C. (2002). Equity, management, power sharing and sustainability: issues of the ‘new tourism’. Tourism Management, 23(1). 17-26.
Scheyvens, R. (1999). Ecotourism and the empowerment of local communities. Tourism Management, 20(2). 245-249
Schwartz, M. (2001). The nature of the relationship between corporate codes of ethics and behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 32(3). 247-262.
Seligman, C. (1989). Environmental ethics. Journal of Social Issues, 45(1). 169-184.
Settina, R. J. &; Richmond,B. O. (1978). U.S. Virgin islanders' perceptions of tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 17(1). 30-31
Silberberg, T. (1995). Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and heritage sites. Tourism Management, 16(5). 361-365.
Stebbins, R. A. (1996). Cultural tourism as serious leisure. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(4). 948-950.
Strauss, A. &; Corbin, J. (1998). 質性研究入門:紮根理論研究方法,吳芝儀、廖梅花(2001)譯,嘉義:濤石文化。
Stevens, B. (1994). An analysis of corporate ethical code studies: Where do we go from here? Journal of Business Ethics, 13(1). 63-69.
Stevens, B. (1996). Using the competing values framework to assess corporate ethical codes. Journal of Business Communication, 33(1). 71-83.
Strauss, A. &; Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. London: Sage.
Taylor, P. W. (1975). Principle of ethics: An introduction. C.A.: Dickenson Publishing Company.
Taylor, S. J. &; Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods. (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley &; Sons, Inc.
TIES (2011a). Five easy steps: Planning your trip, In Your travel choice: Tips for travelers, The International Ecotourism Society. Cite: www.ecotourism.org/your-travel-choice-makes-a-difference [2011, December 12].
TIES (2011b). Do's and don'ts while traveling, in your travel choice: Tips for travelers, the international ecotourism society. Cite: www.ecotourism.org/your-travel-choice-makes-a-difference[2011, December 12].
Tisdell, C. (1996). Ecotourism, economics, and the environment: Observations from China. Journal of Travel Research, 34(4). 11-19.
Toffler, B. L. (1991). Managers talk ethics: Making tough choices in as competitive business World. New York: Wiley.
Trauer, B. (2006). Conceptualizing special interest tourism: Frameworks for analysis. Tourism Management, 27(2). 183-200.
Trevino, L. K. (1986). Ethical decision making in organizations: A person-situation interactionist model. The Academy of Management Review, 11(3). 601-617.
Tsaur, S. H., Lin, Y. C. &; Lin, J. H. (2006). Evaluating ecotourism sustainability from the integrated perspective of resource, community and tourism. Tourism Management, 27(4). 640-653.
Turner, R. K. (1991). Environment, economics and ethics. In Blueprint 2: Greening the World Economy, D. Pearce, ed., pp. 209-224. London: Earthscan.
Upchurch, R. S. &; Teivane, U. (2000). Resident perception of tourism development in Riga, Latvia. Tourism Management, 21(5). 499-507.
Valentine, S. &; Barnett, T. (2002). Ethics codes and sales professionals’ perceptions of their organizations’ ethical value. Journal of Business Ethics, 40(3). 191-200.
Venkatesh, V. &; Fred D. Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46(2).186-204.
WCED, (1987). Our common future. London: Oxford University Press. Oxford.
Weaver, K. M. &; Ferrell, O. C. (1977). The impact of corporate policy on reported ethical beliefs and behavior of marketing practitioners. In Contemporary Marketing Thought, barnett breenberg and danny N. Bellenger, eds., Chicago: American marketing.
Weber, J. (1990). Managers' moral reasoning: Assessing their responses to three moral dilemmas. Human Relations, 43(7). 687-702.
Weber, R. P. (1990). Basic Content Analysis, (2nd ed.). C.A.: Newbury Park.
Weeden, C. (2002). Ethical tourism: An opportunity for competitive advantage? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 8(2). 141-153.
Western, D. (1993). Defining ecotourism. In K. Lindberg and D. E. Hawkins (Eds.). Ecotourism: A guide for planners and managers (pp. 7-11). North Bennington, VT: The Ecotourism Society.
Wheeler, M. (1995). Tourism marketing ethics: An introduction. International Marketing Review, 12(4). 38-49.
Wheeller, B. (1991). Tourism's troubled times: Responsible tourism is not the answer. Tourism Management, 12(2). 91-96.
Witta, S. F., Gammona, S. &; White, J. (1992). Incentive travel: Overview and case study of Canada as a destination for the U.K. market. Tourism Management, 13(3). 276-287.
Wood, A. J. (1990). Business and Society. Scott Foreman and Company.
Woodside, A. G. &; Wilson, E. J. (2003). Case study research methods for theory building. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 18(6/7). 493-508.
Woodside, A. G., MacDonald, R. &; Burford, M. (2004). Grounded theory of leisure travel. Journal of Travel &; Tourism Marketing, 17 (1). 7-39.
Wootton, G. &; Stevens, T. (1995). Business tourism: A study of the market for hotel-based meetings and its contribution to Wales's tourism. Tourism Management, 16(4). 305-313.
WTO (1992). Guidelines: Development of national parks and protected areas for tourism. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.
WTO (1995). Lanzarote charter for sustainable tourism. Madrid: World Tourism Organisation.
WTO (1999). Global code of ethics for tourism, World Tourism Organization. Cited: http://www.unwto.org/ethics [2011, December 10].
WTO (2004). Indicators of sustainable ddevelopment for tourism destinations: A guidebook. Madrid: World Tourism Organization.
WTO (2011a). Historical perspective of world tourism. Cite: http://www.unwto.org/facts/eng/historical.htm. [2011, December 9].
WTO (2011b). Committed to tourism, travel and the millennium development goals. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, 9(1). 1-3.
WTO (2014). 2013 International tourism results and prospects for 2014. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, 12(1). 1-6.
Xiang, Z. &; Formica, S. (2007). Mapping environmental change in tourism: A study of the incentive travel industry. Tourism Management, 28(5). 1193-1202.
Young, M. D. (1992). Sustainable Investment and Resource Use. Great Britain: The Parthenon Publishing Group.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 方志華(2003),關懷倫理學的道德教育方法,鵝湖月刊,340(10),33-43。
2. 方志華(2003),關懷倫理學的道德教育方法,鵝湖月刊,340(10),33-43。
3. 王昭雄、陳得發、蔡惠丞、鄭燕芬(2008),企業倫理守則、工作滿足與組織承諾關係之研究-以直銷為例,中華管理評論,11(4),1-34。
4. 王昭雄、陳得發、蔡惠丞、鄭燕芬(2008),企業倫理守則、工作滿足與組織承諾關係之研究-以直銷為例,中華管理評論,11(4),1-34。
5. 吳成豐、吳文貴(2006),電子商務倫理之研究:以臺灣旅遊業為例,科技管理學刊,11(1),63-94。
6. 吳成豐、吳文貴(2006),電子商務倫理之研究:以臺灣旅遊業為例,科技管理學刊,11(1),63-94。
7. 吳崇旗、王偉琴、周靈山(2009),建構以無痕山林準則為架構之戶外環境行為量表,休閒產業管理學刊,2(1),14-27。
8. 吳崇旗、王偉琴、周靈山(2009),建構以無痕山林準則為架構之戶外環境行為量表,休閒產業管理學刊,2(1),14-27。
9. 沈清松(1996),倫理學理論與專業倫理教育,通識教育季刊,3(2), 1-17。
10. 沈清松(1996),倫理學理論與專業倫理教育,通識教育季刊,3(2), 1-17。
11. 林玉娟、葉匡時(1996),企業倫理認知之實證研究,人力資源學報,6,35-55。
12. 林玉娟、葉匡時(1996),企業倫理認知之實證研究,人力資源學報,6,35-55。
13. 林怡君、郭如秀,(2007),觀光系學生對觀光旅館工作環境倫理困境認知之探討,人文社會科學研究,1(2),1-16。
14. 林怡君、郭如秀,(2007),觀光系學生對觀光旅館工作環境倫理困境認知之探討,人文社會科學研究,1(2),1-16。
15. 張樑治、余嬪、陳朝圳(2008),亂丟垃圾成因:綜合遊客道德情緒與森林遊樂區防衛空間因子之觀點,中華林學季刊,41(1),77-92。