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研究生:吳孟蓉
研究生(外文):Meng-Jung Wu
論文名稱:瑞典、法國、英國親職假制度及其效應之比較研究
論文名稱(外文):The parental leave systems of Sweden, France, United Kingdom and their effects.
指導教授:陳素梅陳素梅引用關係
指導教授(外文):Su-Mei Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:社會學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:社會學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:親職假意識型態
外文關鍵詞:Parental leaveIdeology
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少子女化、家庭與工作衝突的現象令人堪憂,如何協調家庭照顧與職場工作,成為許多國家鼓勵生育政策的重點。親職假政策的目的,首要改善職業婦女於生育子女後繼續就業時所面臨家庭與工作兩難的困境,其次,融入性別平權的觀念鼓勵男性分攤養育兒女的責任並實現父職。希冀減緩雙親照顧子女時,對工作與家庭經濟所產生的衝擊,也藉此消除性別上的迷思。
Esping-Andersen區分出自由主義、保守主義以及社會民主主義為主流的意識形態,本文依據其分類框架,比較瑞典、法國、英國的親職假制度與其帶來的效應。研究結果發現,親職假能有效改善家庭與工作的衝突,然而對生育率的正面影響極小,尚需搭配兒童照顧等配套措施方能有效提升生育率。
各個國家在意識型態的演變會因為社會文化而有其獨特的價值觀,對於親職假的認定與政策走向隨意識型態有所轉變。自由主義觀點下的政府政策並不會干涉太多家庭事務,只給予雙親很短的請假時間;保守主義觀點下的親職假政策,受到傳統分工的影響,主要以女性為考量,致力平衡女性在職場與照顧子女間的不平衡;而社會民主式主義依性別平權,保留父母的專屬權利,積極鼓勵父親使用親職假,盡力將親職假落實於雙親之間。
三個國家在構思親職假政策的發展上逐漸趨向雷同,差別在於給付的時間、津貼與對父親請領立意的呈現。各國親職假制度沒有所謂的好與壞,而是適合每個國家的政策都不同,會因為一個國家的文化、意識型態而有所差異。

In this research, we study Esping-Andersen distinguished liberalism, conservatism and social democratism as mainstream ideologies, according to their classification framework, this paper compare parental leave systems of Sweden, France, the United Kingdom and their effects.
Low fertility, work-family conflicts make us worried. How to coordinate the work of family care and the workplace becomes the focal point of encouraging fertility policy in many countries. The purpose of parental leave policies, give priority to improvement difficulties that career women meet between work and family when they continue working after having children , and secondly, combination with the concept of integration of gender equality to encourage men sharing the responsibility of raising their children and to achieve fatherhood.
The aim about parental leave is to slow down the working and family financial impact when parents care for their children, but also to eliminate gender misconception. The study found that parental leave can effectively improve work-family conflict; however minimal positive effects on fertility rate, there still needs to have children’s care supporting measures to improve fertility rate.
The evolution of ideology of each country has its unique values because of its society and culture, the identification and policy direction of parental leave changes with the ideology. Government policy under liberal views will not interfere too much family affairs, only give parents a short leave time; Parental leave policy under the conservative point of view, influenced by the traditional division of labor, mainly concerning with women, makes efforts to balance women’s imbalance between work and care of children; and the social-democratism according gender equality, preserve exclusive rights of parents, actively encourage fathers to use parental leave, endeavors to carry out parental leave between the parents.
Three countries in the development of the idea of parental leave policies gradually moving towards the same, the difference lies in time of payment, allowances and attitude about father. Parental leave system of each country is neither good nor bad, but to fit the policy of each country is different, it varies with culture and ideology of each country.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究問題面向與目的 6
第二章 文獻回顧與探討 11
第一節 Esping-Andersen三種福利國家 11
第二節 親職假制度的發展 16
第三節 相關論文研究回顧 18
一、性別態度/角色分工相關論文 18
二、家庭與工作衝突的論文 24
三、國內外跨國比較福利相關論文 26
第三章 研究方法 39
第一節 研究方法的選取 39
第二節 研究國家的選取 41
第三節 研究及論文架構 44
第四章 三國親職假 47
第一節 瑞典親職假歷史演變與現行制度 47
第二節 法國親職假歷史演變與現行制度 50
第三節 英國親職假歷史演變與現行制度 54
第五章 綜合討論─相關社會觀察 57
第一節 瑞典、法國與英國家庭與就業 59
一、瑞典雙親照顧子女的分工狀況 59
二、法國雙親照顧子女的分工狀況 64
三、英國雙親照顧子女的分工情況 66
四、瑞典、法國與英國婦女就業型態 67
五、小結 74
第二節 瑞典、法國與英國生育率的發展 76
第六章 結論建議與研究限制 87
參考書目 95

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