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研究生:陳若芸
研究生(外文):Jo-Yun Chen
論文名稱:PETTLEP模式及意象型態應用研究-以某大專射箭國手為例-
論文名稱(外文):PETTLEP Model and Imagery Type Applying Research-A Case Study of University of National Archer Athlete-
指導教授:林啟賢林啟賢引用關係林如瀚林如瀚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Hsian LinJu-Han Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:體育與運動科學系
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:PETTLEP模式意象介入單一受試者設計視覺分析
外文關鍵詞:PETTLEP modelimagery interventionsingle case designvisual analysis
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本研究整合Martin, Moritz與 Hall (1999) 的心智意象在運動的應用模式和Holmes與Collins (2001) 的PETTLEP模式做為理論架構,探討意象介入優秀射箭選手技能、自信心、正面情緒的提升及降低焦慮的效益。主要的設計脈絡是以不同類型意象型態結合PETTLEP的意象介入要素,探討一、CS意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對射箭技能的影響情形。二、MG-M意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對射箭選手改善狀態自信心的情況。三、MG-A意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對射箭選手狀態性焦慮的降低情形。四、動機意象結合PETTLEP意象對射箭選手正面情緒的提升作用。
以現役射箭國手為對象,最佳成績為2008年亞洲大獎賽冠軍以及2011年世界大學運動會,混雙組第三名,目前為全國90公尺紀錄保持人,以單一受試者A-B設計進行實驗介入。基礎期間(A期)不介入任何意象訓練,藉由問卷測量瞭解實驗參與者狀態自信心、狀態焦慮、情緒及射箭技能表現情形。經過基礎期9次測量後,接著進入介入期(B期)。介入期間則以CS、MG-M及MG-A結合PETTLEP意象模式各要素分別進行介入,以了解受試者在經過介入後各變項之變化情形。介入期間,受試者聆聽完意象指導語後,隨即填寫三份問卷及進行射箭技能測量。實驗結束後,以社會效度問卷及意象日誌瞭解受試者之意象介入情形。
所得資料以視覺分析法及C統計法進行資料處理,結果顯示:(一)、CS意象介入對射箭技能表現並無預期效果,但具有學習效果;(二)、MG-M意象介入對狀態性自信心提升並無效果;(三)、MG-A意象介入對降低狀態性焦慮具有效果;(四)、動機意象介入對正面情緒提升未具效果。依研究發現,本研究建議,運動員應將意象訓練融入平日練習中,並在訓練課程實施中搭配意象訓練;而在未來研究上,必須持續探討不同意象型態結合PETTLEP意象模式的效益,及PETTLEP意象模式各要素的結合與單獨使用效益。

The theoretical structure of this research was composed of the application model of mental imagery on sports activity by Martin, Moritz and Hall (1999) and PETTLEP model by Holmes and Collins (2001). It was aimed to discuss the efficacy of imagery intervention on enhancement of archery athlete skill performance, self-confidence and elevate positive emotions as well as mitigation of athlete anxiety. The different imagery type integrated with PETTLEP imagery intervention elements had been applied to study: 1. The impact of CS Imagery type integrated with PETTLEP imagery training on archery Skill performance; 2. The impact of MG-M imagery type integrated with PETTLEP imagery training on improvement of athlete self-confidence; 3. The impact of MG-A imagery type integrated with PETTLEP imagery training on mitigation of athlete anxiety; and 4. The impact of motivation imagery integrated with PETTLEP imagery on enhancement of athlete elevate positive emotions.
The chosen subject was the national champion archery athlete with the best records of 2008 Asia Grand Prix Champion and the third place of mixed doubles, 2011 World University Games, who is also the national record keeper of 90m Race currently. The single case design for A-B was use for intervention experiment. During basis phase (phase A) without imagery intervention training, questionnaire measure was conducted to investigate the status of athlete self-confidence, anxiety, emotions and skill performance. After 9 times of measurements during basis phase came along the intervention phase (phase B). The interventions of CS, MG-M and MG-A integrated with PETTLEP imagery model had been applied individually to observe the changes of the tested athlete status. During the intervention phase, the participant was asked to fill out three copies of questionnaires and proceeded with archery skill test after listening to the imagery instructions. Upon completion of experiment, social validity questionnaire and imagery diary had been applied for the understanding of the imagery intervention to the participant condition.
The derived data was analyzed with the methodology of visual analysis and C statistics for data processing. The findings were as follows: (1) CS imagery intervention did not display any enhancement of skill performance as expected, yet learning effect was identified;(2) There was no sign of enhancement of athlete self-confidence by MG-M imagery intervention;(3) MG-A imagery intervention did have mitigation effect on the athlete anxiety;(4) There was no evidence of any enhancement of the athlete elevate positive emotions by motivation imagery intervention. According to the findings of the study, it was recommended that athletes should combine imagery training into their daily training drills and training courses; whereas future studies discussing the effects of different imagery patterns integrated with PETTLEP imagery model, as well as the effects of the element combination or the elements alone of PETTLEP imagery model are highly recommended.
中文摘要------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要----------------------------------------------III
目次---------------------------------------------------V
表次-------------------------------------------------VII
圖次------------------------------------------------VIII

第壹章 緒論------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究背景--------------------------------------1
第二節 研究目的--------------------------------------6
第三節 研究問題--------------------------------------6
第四節 研究假設--------------------------------------6
第五節 研究範圍--------------------------------------7
第六節 研究限制--------------------------------------7
第七節 名詞操作性定義---------------------------------7

第貳章 文獻探討----------------------------------------9
第一節 意象之相關理論基礎-------------------------------9
第二節 有關傳統意象相關研究----------------------------17
第三節 有關PETTLEP意象模式相關研究---------------------20
第四節 單一受試者------------------------------------21
第五節 本章結語--------------------------------------23

第参章 研究方法------------------------------------------25
第一節 研究架構--------------------------------------25
第二節 研究對象--------------------------------------26
第三節 實驗日期與時間---------------------------------26
第四節 研究流程--------------------------------------26
第五節 研究工具及記分方式------------------------------27
第六節 資料處理--------------------------------------29

第肆章 結果---------------------------------------------31
第一節 CS意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對射箭技能表現的影響---31
第二節 MG-M意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對狀態自信心的影響---35
第三節 MG-A意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對狀態性焦慮的影響---37
第四節 動機意象結合PETTLEP意象對受試者正面情緒的提升-------41
第五節 意象日誌與社會效度分析---------------------------43

第伍章 討論與結論-----------------------------------------47
第一節CS意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對射箭技能表現的影響-----47
第二節 MG-M意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對狀態自信心的影響---48
第三節 MG-A意象型態結合PETTLEP意象訓練對狀態性焦慮的影響---49
第四節 動機意象結合PETTLEP意象對受試者正面情緒的提升-------49
第五節 結論------------------------------------------50
第六節 建議------------------------------------------51

參考文獻------------------------------------------------53

附錄---------------------------------------------------65
附錄一 實驗參與者同意書-------------------------------65
附錄二 動作意象量表修訂版-----------------------------66
附錄三 改編版賽前狀態性焦慮量表之自信心分量表-------------70
附錄四 運動競賽焦慮量表-------------------------------71
附錄五 盤斯心情量表----------------------------------72
附錄六 動作意象修訂量表使用同意書-----------------------74
附錄七 盤斯心情量表使用同意書--------------------------75
附錄八 運動競賽焦慮量表使用同意書-----------------------76
附錄九 改編版賽前狀態性量表同意書-----------------------77
附錄十 CS意象指導語----------------------------------78
附錄十一 CS意象指導語(修改後腳本)---------------------79
附錄十二 MG-M、MG-A 意象指導語------------------------80
附錄十三 意象日誌------------------------------------81
附錄十四 社會效度問卷---------------------------------82

表 次
表1 意象模式之理論預期效果-----------------------------15
表4-1 CS意象型態結合PETTLEP意象模式之射箭技能表現階段內、階段間及
C統計分析表------------------------------------33
表4-2 MG-M結合PETTLEP意象模式之狀態自信心階段內、階段間及C統計
分析表----------------------------------------36
表4-3 MG-A結合PETTLEP意象模式之狀態焦慮階段內、階段間及C統計分
析表------------------------------------------40
表4-4 動機意象結合PETTLEP意象模式之心情狀態階段內、階段間及C統計
分析表----------------------------------------42
表4-5 社會效度評量結果表-------------------------------45

圖 次
圖1心智意象在運動使用的應用模式--------------------------13
圖2五種不同的意象使用型態-------------------------------14
圖3研究架構------------------------------------------25
圖4-1 CS意象型態結合PETTLEP意象模式之射箭技能表現得分曲線圖-32
圖4-2 MG-M意象型態結合PETTLEP意象模式之狀態自信心得分曲線圖-35
圖4-3 MG-A意象型態結合PETTLEP意象模式之狀態焦慮得分曲線圖---38
圖4-4 動機意象型態結合PETTLEP意象模式之心情狀態得分曲線圖----41

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