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研究生:K'sha, Dezra, Samandra Woodley
研究生(外文):K'sha, Dezra, Woodley
論文名稱:聖文森與格瑞那丁Richland Park地區農業地景變遷的社會、經濟和環境影響分析
論文名稱(外文):Socio-economic and environmental implications of changing agricultural landscapes in a small island developing state: A case study of Richland Park, St. Vincent and the Grenadines
指導教授:李光中李光中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuang-Chung Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:自然資源與環境學系
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
論文頁數:174
外文關鍵詞:AgricultureBananaChanging agricultural landscapesCash cropsSWOT analysisSmall island developing states (SIDS)
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To explore and understand the implications of the decline of the banana (Musa AAA Group‚ Cavendish) industry in St. Vincent and the Grenadines, I choose Richland Park, a rural and traditional farming community. For over forty years, banana has been the major cash crop, however, recent onset of pests and diseases and natural disasters, among other factors, have caused severe decline in banana production and exports. Interview data show agricultural landscapes in Richland Park shift from mainly banana production to randomly diversified farming systems. Farmers shift to alternative cash crops, specifically, dasheen (Colocasia esculenta var esculenta) and eddoes (Colocasia esculenta var antiquorum). Banana decline is attributed to many factors therefore I use the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT) analysis to highlight the internal and external constraints that influence farmers transition to alternative cash crops. This study underscores farmers' socio-economic progress or decline in light of recent changes and farmers' role in driving or minimising environmental degradation in Richland Park. Study results further show that farmer population is comprised of aged and aging men and women; decreased farmer population; lack of financial and input support to farmers; and reliance on the Government to source markets for crops. Farmers are literally on the ground and have many ideas to change and improve the agricultural system, starting with themselves and then the government. In this way, farmers provide ideas for government policy makers and non-governmental organisations to improve the local and national agricultural system. If taken seriously, these ideas can create strategies to improve farmers' livelihoods and farming practices. Farming contributes to income, food security, and economic stability. On this basis, the future of farming in Richland Park, and by extension, St. Vincent and the Grenadines is important.
Chapter 1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………...11
1.1. Crop production in a changing world……………………………………...11
1.2. Thesis structure ……………………………………………………………………17
1.3. Geography, population, and natural hazards of St. Vincent and the Grenadines………................................................18
1.4. Political and economic history ..………………………………………….19
1.4.1. Land settlement scheme..…………………………………………………….23
1.4.2. Land tenure and management…………………………………………………24
1.4.3. Farm systems …………………………………………………………………….25
1.4.4. Environment ……………………………………………………………………….26
1.5. Historical background of banana industry in St. Vincent and the Grenadines...................................................28
1.6. Overview of agriculture in St. Vincent and the Grenadines ……………………………...........................................32

Chapter 2 Literature review………………………………………….........39
2.1. Definition of terms ………………………………………………….......39
2.1.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………40
2.2. Cash crops…………………………………………………………………........42
2.2.1. Why cash crops do so well? .................................52
2.3. Banana and agrochemicals…………………………………………………………55

Chapter 3 Methodology………………………………………………………….....59
3.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………...59
3.2. Historical background of Richland Park…………………………………..59
3.2.1. Study area………………………………………………………………………...60
3.3. The research problem ……………………………………………………......63
3.4. Sample frame ………………………………………………………………….....63
3.5. Data collection ……………………………………………................65
3.5.1. Specialist knowledge………………………………………………………65
3.5.2. Data analysis……………………………………………………………………66

Chapter 4 Results and discussions…………………………………........67
4.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………67
4.1.1. Changing agricultural landscapes 1900s to 1950s …………………67
4.1.2. Socio-economic and environmental conditions in Richland Park in 1900s- 1950s……………………………………………………………………70
4.1.3. Education………………………………………………………………………....71
4.1.4. Land tenure……………………………………………………………………....73
4.1.5. Poverty…………………………………………………………………………....74
4.1.6. Environmental conditions………………………………………………………75

5.1. Rise of the banana industry 1960s to 1990s ……………………………75
5.1.1. Socio-economic benefits …………………………………………………...76
5.1.2. Cultural practices………………………………………………………………77
5.1.3. Decline of banana industry………………………………………….......78
5.1.4. Environmental conditions……………………………………………………..79
5.1.5 Markets and prices……………………………………………………………...81

6.1. Socio-economic and environmental conditions in Richland Park 1960s to 2000s…...................................................82
6.1.2. Education………………………………………………………………………...82
6.1.3. Land tenure……………………………………………………………………...84
6.1.4. Poverty…………………………………………………………………………..86
6.1.5. Family labour…………………………………………………………………....87
6.1.6. Markets and prices………………………………………………………………88
6.1.7. Environmental conditions…………………………………………………….90

7.1. Future of banana farming in Richland Park…………………………...92
7.1.1. Credit and support from Ministry of Agriculture………………..94

8.1. SWOT analysis……………………………………………………………….......95
8.1.2. Discussion of results from SWOT analysis…………………………..99
8.1.3. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..99
8.1.4. Global level………………………………………………………………....100
8.1.5. National level…………………………………………………………………103
8.1.6. Community level……………………………………………………………..105
8.1.7. Farm/field level……………………………………………………………….107

Chapter 5 Conclusions……………………………………………………………….111

5.1. Socio-economic implications….………………………………………111
5.2. Environmental implications..………………………………………….112
5.3. Recommendations for future research……………………………..114

REFERENCE…………………………………………………………………………114-141
Appendix I: Study sample……………………………………………………..142
Appendix II: Land tenure among Respondents…………..........................................143
Appendix III: Crop diversity, crop systems, and livestock ownership among respondents in Richland Park……………………………………..144
Appendix IV: Eco-zones and associated main soil groups…………….145
Appendix V: Common crops cultivated among Respondents………………………………..146
Appendix VI: Interview transcript - Respondent 7 [Male]……147-156
Appendix VII: Interview transcript - Respondent 5 [Female]..157-174
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