( 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/14 01:55
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  


研究生(外文):Chou, Yi-Shan
論文名稱(外文):The Relation between Fine Particles Exposure and the Early Biological Effects of Cardiovascular Disease
指導教授(外文):Lai, Ching-HuangLiou, Saou-Hsing
口試委員(外文):Lai, Ching-HuangLiou, Saou-HsingKuo, Hsien-WenTang, Chin-ShengHuang, Han-Bin
外文關鍵詞:PM2.5Longitudinal StudyPersonal Environmental MonitoringEarly Biological Effects of Cardiovascular Disease
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:297
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1



結果:橫斷研究部分發現,於全體研究對象分析中,校正各因子後,除VCAM-1會增加,其他早期生物效應指標皆下降,但皆無顯著意義。於A地之分析中,在校正各因子後,每暴露10µg/m3之細懸浮微粒,其族群平均SDNN下降4.89ms,RMSSD下降4.40ms,並皆達顯著意義(95%C.I.: -8.37,-1.41, p<0.01及95%C.I.: -7.87,-0.94, p=0.01)。B地之縱貫研究部分發現,在校正相關因子後,每暴露10µg/m3之細懸浮微粒,隨著追蹤時間,其族群平均WBC下降0.33×103/µL, 並達統計上顯著意義 (95%C.I.:-0.59,-0.07, p=0.01)。


Epidemiological studies found that due to particles its aerodynamic particle size affects the deposition site, its different chemical composition will cause different health effects; studies indicate fine particle exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general population exposure to fine particles and the relation with early biological effects of cardiovascular disease.

For this longitudinal study, we recruited 82 subjects from 2 different areas (Area A [residential and commercial area] and Area B [industrial area]) in Taipei Metropolitan at baseline. We used personal samplers to collect 24 hours PM2.5 exposure samples. The study population underwent an interview and a health examination on the next day morning, where blood and urine samples were collected. All of subjects were repeated measured after two months for two times of follow-up. Our current aim was to investigate the relation between fine particlces exposure and cardiovascular disease markers and heart rate variability.

After adjusted for confounding factors, except for VCAM-1, all cardiovascular biomarkers (Hs-CRP, Fibrinogen, WBC, Platelet) of early biological effects have negative relation but no statistically significant with PM2.5 exposure levels. In addition, after adjusting for confounding factors, every 10μg/m3 fine particles exposure levels increased, SDNN declined 4.89 ms (95%CI, -8.37~-1.41, p<0.01), while RMSSD decreased 4.40 ms (95% CI, -7.87~-0.94, p=0.01), and there were no significant findings between early biological effects and PM2.5 in this longitudinal analyses.

目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 V
附錄目錄 VI
摘要 VII
Abstract VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機與重要性 3
第三節 研究目的 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 細懸浮微粒來源 5
第二節 各國規範與暴露評估 7
第三節 細懸浮微粒進入人體之途徑 9
第四節 細懸浮微粒誘發急性心血管效應之可能機制 11
第五節 動脈粥狀硬化之發展 12
第六節 心血管疾病早期生物效應指標 14
第七節 流行病學研究 19
第三章 研究方法 22
第一節 研究設計與架構 22
第二節 研究對象 25
第三節 研究方法與工具 26
第四節 Quality Assurance/ Quality Control(QA/QC) 29
第五節 資料處理及統計方法 34
第四章 研究結果 35
第一節 研究對象描述性統計與檢定 35
第二節 研究對象細懸浮微粒暴露情形之描述與檢定(橫斷) 39
第三節 心血管疾病早期生物效應指標之描述與檢定(橫斷) 40
第四節 細懸浮微粒暴露與心血管疾病早期生物效應指標之相關矩陣 47
第五節 研究對象細懸浮微粒暴露於追蹤期間內變化之描述 48
第五章 討論 50
第一節 研究對象之選取與研究效度 51
第二節 研究對象細懸浮微粒暴露情形 52
第三節 細懸浮微粒暴露與心率變異相關之探討 53
第四節 細懸浮微粒暴露與凝血相關因子及發炎反應指標之探討 55
第五節 細懸浮微粒暴露與沾黏分子相關之探討 56
第六節 研究限制 57
第六章 結論 58
第一節 研究結論 58
第二節 建議 59
參考文獻 60

Adams, H. S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Colvile, R. N., McMullen, M. A. & Khandelwal, P. 2001. Fine particle (PM2.5) personal exposure levels in transport microenvironments, London, UK. Sci Total Environ, 279, 29-44.
Barregard, L., Sallsten, G., Gustafson, P., Andersson, L., Johansson, L., Basu, S. & Stigendal, L. 2006. Experimental exposure to wood-smoke particles in healthy humans: effects on markers of inflammation, coagulation, and lipid peroxidation. Inhal Toxicol, 18, 845-53.
Beelen, R., Hoek, G., van den Brandt, P. A., Goldbohm, R. A., Fischer, P., Schouten, L. J., Armstrong, B. & Brunekreef, B. 2008a. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer risk. Epidemiology, 19, 702-10.
Beelen, R., Hoek, G., van den Brandt, P. A., Goldbohm, R. A., Fischer, P., Schouten, L. J., Jerrett, M., Hughes, E., Armstrong, B. & Brunekreef, B. 2008b. Long-term effects of traffic-related air pollution on mortality in a Dutch cohort (NLCS-AIR study). Environ Health Perspect, 116, 196-202.
Behrendt, D. & Ganz, P. 2002. Endothelial function. From vascular biology to clinical applications. Am J Cardiol, 90, 40L-48L.
Blake, G. J. & Ridker, P. M. 2003. C-reactive protein: a surrogate risk marker or mediator of atherothrombosis? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 285, R1250-2.
Blann, A. D. & Lip, G. Y. 1998. The endothelium in atherothrombotic disease: assessment of function, mechanisms and clinical implications. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis, 9, 297-306.
Brook, R. D., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C. A., 3rd, Brook, J. R., Bhatnagar, A., Diez-Roux, A. V., Holguin, F., Hong, Y., Luepker, R. V., Mittleman, M. A., Peters, A., Siscovick, D., Smith, S. C., Jr., Whitsel, L., Kaufman, J. D., American Heart Association Council on, E., Prevention, C. o. t. K. i. C. D., Council on Nutrition, P. A. & Metabolism 2010. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 121, 2331-78.
Burgan, O., Smargiassi, A., Perron, S. & Kosatsky, T. 2010. Cardiovascular effects of sub-daily levels of ambient fine particles: a systematic review. Environ Health, 9, 26.
Chahine, T., Baccarelli, A., Litonjua, A., Wright, R. O., Suh, H., Gold, D. R., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P. & Schwartz, J. 2007. Particulate air pollution, oxidative stress genes, and heart rate variability in an elderly cohort. Environ Health Perspect, 115, 1617-22.
Chang, C. C., Kuo, C. C., Liou, S. H. & Yang, C. Y. 2013. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 76, 440-8.
Chen, S. Y., Su, T. C., Lin, Y. L. & Chan, C. C. 2012. Short-term effects of air pollution on pulse pressure among nonsmoking adults. Epidemiology, 23, 341-8.
Chuang, K. J., Yan, Y. H., Chiu, S. Y. & Cheng, T. J. 2011. Long-term air pollution exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in Taiwan. Occup Environ Med, 68, 64-8.
Clancy, L., Goodman, P., Sinclair, H. & Dockery, D. W. 2002. Effect of air-pollution control on death rates in Dublin, Ireland: an intervention study. Lancet, 360, 1210-4.
Danesh, J., Collins, R., Appleby, P. & Peto, R. 1998. Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies. JAMA, 279, 1477-82.
de Hartog, J. J., Lanki, T., Timonen, K. L., Hoek, G., Janssen, N. A., Ibald-Mulli, A., Peters, A., Heinrich, J., Tarkiainen, T. H., van Grieken, R., van Wijnen, J. H., Brunekreef, B. & Pekkanen, J. 2009. Associations between PM2.5 and heart rate variability are modified by particle composition and beta-blocker use in patients with coronary heart disease. Environ Health Perspect, 117, 105-11.
Dockery, D. W., Pope, C. A., 3rd, Xu, X., Spengler, J. D., Ware, J. H., Fay, M. E., Ferris, B. G., Jr. & Speizer, F. E. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med, 329, 1753-9.
Ernst, E. & Resch, K. L. 1993. Fibrinogen as a cardiovascular risk factor: a meta-analysis and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med, 118, 956-63.
Forsyth, C. B., Solovjov, D. A., Ugarova, T. P. & Plow, E. F. 2001. Integrin alpha(M)beta(2)-mediated cell migration to fibrinogen and its recognition peptides. J Exp Med, 193, 1123-33.
Frampton, M. W., Stewart, J. C., Oberdorster, G., Morrow, P. E., Chalupa, D., Pietropaoli, A. P., Frasier, L. M., Speers, D. M., Cox, C., Huang, L. S. & Utell, M. J. 2006. Inhalation of ultrafine particles alters blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules in humans. Environ Health Perspect, 114, 51-8.
Fritsma, G. 2001. High sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clin Lab Sci, 14, 276-278; quiz 279-80.
Goldberg, M. S., Burnett, R. T., Yale, J. F., Valois, M. F. & Brook, J. R. 2006. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among persons with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Environ Res, 100, 255-67.
Gonzalez-Flecha, B. 2004. Oxidant mechanisms in response to ambient air particles. Mol Aspects Med, 25, 169-82.
Harley, S. L., Sturge, J. & Powell, J. T. 2000. Regulation by fibrinogen and its products of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in human saphenous vein endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 20, 652-8.
Hillis, G. S. & Flapan, A. D. 1998. Cell adhesion molecules in cardiovascular disease: a clinical perspective. Heart, 79, 429-31.
Hoffmann, A. C., Kaifi, J. T., Vallbohmer, D., Yekebas, E., Grimminger, P., Leers, J. M., Izbicki, J. R., Holscher, A. H., Schneider, P. M., Metzger, R. & Brabender, J. 2009. Lack of prognostic significance of serum DNA methylation of DAPK, MGMT, and GSTPI in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. J Surg Oncol, 100, 414-7.
Jaakkola, M. S. & Jaakkola, J. J. 1997. Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Eur Respir J, 10, 2384-97.
Joris, I., Zand, T., Nunnari, J. J., Krolikowski, F. J. & Majno, G. 1983. Studies on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. I. Adhesion and emigration of mononuclear cells in the aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats. Am J Pathol, 113, 341-58.
Kim, J. J., Huen, K., Adams, S., Smorodinsky, S., Hoats, A., Malig, B., Lipsett, M. & Ostro, B. 2008. Residential traffic and children's respiratory health. Environ Health Perspect, 116, 1274-9.
Klepczynska Nystrom, A., Svartengren, M., Grunewald, J., Pousette, C., Rodin, I., Lundin, A., Skold, C. M., Eklund, A. & Larsson, B. M. 2010. Health effects of a subway environment in healthy volunteers. Eur Respir J, 36, 240-8.
Laden, F., Neas, L. M., Dockery, D. W. & Schwartz, J. 2000. Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six U.S. cities. Environ Health Perspect, 108, 941-7.
Langrish, J. P., Li, X., Wang, S., Lee, M. M., Barnes, G. D., Miller, M. R., Cassee, F. R., Boon, N. A., Donaldson, K., Li, J., Li, L., Mills, N. L., Newby, D. E. & Jiang, L. 2012. Reducing personal exposure to particulate air pollution improves cardiovascular health in patients with coronary heart disease. Environ Health Perspect, 120, 367-72.
Langrish, J. P., Mills, N. L., Chan, J. K., Leseman, D. L., Aitken, R. J., Fokkens, P. H., Cassee, F. R., Li, J., Donaldson, K., Newby, D. E. & Jiang, L. 2009. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask. Part Fibre Toxicol, 6, 8.
Libby, P. 2000. Changing concepts of atherogenesis. J Intern Med, 247, 349-58.
Libby, P. 2002. Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature, 420, 868-74.
Libby, P., Ridker, P. M. & Maseri, A. 2002. Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation, 105, 1135-43.
Madl, A. K., Carosino, C. & Pinkerton, K. E. 2010. Comprehensive Toxicology. ELSEVIER, 8, p.421-451.
Maynard, D., Coull, B. A., Gryparis, A. & Schwartz, J. 2007. Mortality risk associated with short-term exposure to traffic particles and sulfates. Environ Health Perspect, 115, 751-5.
McConnell, R., Berhane, K., Yao, L., Jerrett, M., Lurmann, F., Gilliland, F., Kunzli, N., Gauderman, J., Avol, E., Thomas, D. & Peters, J. 2006. Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect, 114, 766-72.
Meier-Ewert, H. K., Ridker, P. M., Rifai, N., Price, N., Dinges, D. F. & Mullington, J. M. 2001. Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy human subjects. Clin Chem, 47, 426-30.
Miller, K. A., Siscovick, D. S., Sheppard, L., Shepherd, K., Sullivan, J. H., Anderson, G. L. & Kaufman, J. D. 2007. Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women. N Engl J Med, 356, 447-58.
Mills, N. L., Donaldson, K., Hadoke, P. W., Boon, N. A., MacNee, W., Cassee, F. R., Sandstrom, T., Blomberg, A. & Newby, D. E. 2009. Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med, 6, 36-44.
Munro, J. M. & Cotran, R. S. 1988. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: atherogenesis and inflammation. Lab Invest, 58, 249-61.
Nemmar, A., Hoet, P. H., Vanquickenborne, B., Dinsdale, D., Thomeer, M., Hoylaerts, M. F., Vanbilloen, H., Mortelmans, L. & Nemery, B. 2002. Passage of inhaled particles into the blood circulation in humans. Circulation, 105, 411-4.
Neophytou, A. M., Hart, J. E., Cavallari, J. M., Smith, T. J., Dockery, D. W., Coull, B. A., Garshick, E. & Laden, F. 2013. Traffic-related exposures and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress: a panel study in the US trucking industry. Environ Health, 12, 105.
Niu, J., Liberda, E. N., Qu, S., Guo, X., Li, X., Zhang, J., Meng, J., Yan, B., Li, N., Zhong, M., Ito, K., Wildman, R., Liu, H., Chen, L. C. & Qu, Q. 2013. The role of metal components in the cardiovascular effects of PM2.5. PLoS One, 8, e83782.
Ostro, B., Broadwin, R., Green, S., Feng, W. Y. & Lipsett, M. 2006. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: results from CALFINE. Environ Health Perspect, 114, 29-33.
Pai, J. K., Pischon, T., Ma, J., Manson, J. E., Hankinson, S. E., Joshipura, K., Curhan, G. C., Rifai, N., Cannuscio, C. C., Stampfer, M. J. & Rimm, E. B. 2004. Inflammatory markers and the risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. N Engl J Med, 351, 2599-610.
Pasceri, V., Cheng, J. S., Willerson, J. T. & Yeh, E. T. 2001. Modulation of C-reactive protein-mediated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induction in human endothelial cells by anti-atherosclerosis drugs. Circulation, 103, 2531-4.
Pearson, T. A., Mensah, G. A., Alexander, R. W., Anderson, J. L., Cannon, R. O., 3rd, Criqui, M., Fadl, Y. Y., Fortmann, S. P., Hong, Y., Myers, G. L., Rifai, N., Smith, S. C., Jr., Taubert, K., Tracy, R. P., Vinicor, F., Centers for Disease, C., Prevention & American Heart, A. 2003. Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 107, 499-511.
Pell, J. P., Haw, S., Cobbe, S., Newby, D. E., Pell, A. C., Fischbacher, C., McConnachie, A., Pringle, S., Murdoch, D., Dunn, F., Oldroyd, K., Macintyre, P., O'Rourke, B. & Borland, W. 2008. Smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med, 359, 482-91.
Pope, C. A., 3rd, Burnett, R. T., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., Ito, K. & Thurston, G. D. 2002. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. JAMA, 287, 1132-41.
Pope, C. A., 3rd, Hansen, M. L., Long, R. W., Nielsen, K. R., Eatough, N. L., Wilson, W. E. & Eatough, D. J. 2004. Ambient particulate air pollution, heart rate variability, and blood markers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects. Environ Health Perspect, 112, 339-45.
Pope, C. A., Hansen, M. L., Long, R. W., Nielsen, K. R., Eatough, N. L., Wilson, W. E. & Eatough, D. J. 2003. Ambient Particulate Air Pollution, Heart Rate Variability, and Blood Markers of Inflammation in a Panel of Elderly Subjects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 339-345.
Price, D. T. & Loscalzo, J. 1999. Cellular adhesion molecules and atherogenesis. Am J Med, 107, 85-97.
Programme, U. N. E. 2006. GEO Year Book 2006: An Overview of Our Changing Environment.
Rosenlund, M., Bellander, T., Nordquist, T. & Alfredsson, L. 2009. Traffic-generated air pollution and myocardial infarction. Epidemiology, 20, 265-71.
Ross, R. 1999. Atherosclerosis--an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med, 340, 115-26.
Rubel, C., Fernandez, G. C., Dran, G., Bompadre, M. B., Isturiz, M. A. & Palermo, M. S. 2001. Fibrinogen promotes neutrophil activation and delays apoptosis. J Immunol, 166, 2002-10.
Ruckerl, R., Greven, S., Ljungman, P., Aalto, P., Antoniades, C., Bellander, T., Berglind, N., Chrysohoou, C., Forastiere, F., Jacquemin, B., von Klot, S., Koenig, W., Kuchenhoff, H., Lanki, T., Pekkanen, J., Perucci, C. A., Schneider, A., Sunyer, J., Peters, A. & Group, A. S. 2007. Air pollution and inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen) in myocardial infarction survivors. Environ Health Perspect, 115, 1072-80.
Schwartz, J., Litonjua, A., Suh, H., Verrier, M., Zanobetti, A., Syring, M., Nearing, B., Verrier, R., Stone, P., MacCallum, G., Speizer, F. E. & Gold, D. R. 2005. Traffic related pollution and heart rate variability in a panel of elderly subjects. Thorax, 60, 455-61.
Smith, E. B. 1986. Fibrinogen, fibrin and fibrin degradation products in relation to atherosclerosis. Clin Haematol, 15, 355-70.
Stary, H. C., Chandler, A. B., Glagov, S., Guyton, J. R., Insull, W., Jr., Rosenfeld, M. E., Schaffer, S. A., Schwartz, C. J., Wagner, W. D. & Wissler, R. W. 1994. A definition of initial, fatty streak, and intermediate lesions of atherosclerosis. A report from the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association. Circulation, 89, 2462-78.
Suh, H. H. & Zanobetti, A. 2010. Exposure error masks the relationship between traffic-related air pollution and heart rate variability. J Occup Environ Med, 52, 685-92.
Sweetnam, P. M., Thomas, H. F., Yarnell, J. W., Beswick, A. D., Baker, I. A. & Elwood, P. C. 1996. Fibrinogen, viscosity and the 10-year incidence of ischaemic heart disease. Eur Heart J, 17, 1814-20.
Torzewski, M., Rist, C., Mortensen, R. F., Zwaka, T. P., Bienek, M., Waltenberger, J., Koenig, W., Schmitz, G., Hombach, V. & Torzewski, J. 2000. C-reactive protein in the arterial intima: role of C-reactive protein receptor-dependent monocyte recruitment in atherogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 20, 2094-9.
Wallen, N. H., Held, C., Rehnqvist, N. & Hjemdahl, P. 1999. Elevated serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 among patients with stable angina pectoris who suffer cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J, 20, 1039-43.
Wang, G., Jiang, R., Zhao, Z. & Song, W. 2013. Effects of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on rat system inflammation and cardiac function. Toxicol Lett, 217, 23-33.
Wheeler, A., Zanobetti, A., Gold, D. R., Schwartz, J., Stone, P. & Suh, H. H. 2006. The relationship between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability differs for individuals with heart and pulmonary disease. Environ Health Perspect, 114, 560-6.
Wilhelmsen, L., Svardsudd, K., Korsan-Bengtsen, K., Larsson, B., Welin, L. & Tibblin, G. 1984. Fibrinogen as a risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med, 311, 501-5.
Williams, L., Ulrich, C. M., Larson, T., Wener, M. H., Wood, B., Chen-Levy, Z., Campbell, P. T., Potter, J., McTiernan, A. & Roos, A. J. 2011. Fine particulate matter (PM(2).(5)) air pollution and immune status among women in the Seattle area. Arch Environ Occup Health, 66, 155-65.
Wu, C. F., Li, Y. R., Kuo, I. C., Hsu, S. C., Lin, L. Y. & Su, T. C. 2012. Investigating the association of cardiovascular effects with personal exposure to particle components and sources. Sci Total Environ, 431, 176-82.
Wu, S., Deng, F., Niu, J., Huang, Q., Liu, Y. & Guo, X. 2010. Association of heart rate variability in taxi drivers with marked changes in particulate air pollution in Beijing in 2008. Environ Health Perspect, 118, 87-91.
Yu, H. L., Wang, C. H., Liu, M. C. & Kuo, Y. M. 2011. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 8, 2153-69.
Zanobetti, A., Canner, M. J., Stone, P. H., Schwartz, J., Sher, D., Eagan-Bengston, E., Gates, K. A., Hartley, L. H., Suh, H. & Gold, D. R. 2004. Ambient pollution and blood pressure in cardiac rehabilitation patients. Circulation, 110, 2184-9.
Zhu, M. T., Wang, B., Wang, Y., Yuan, L., Wang, H. J., Wang, M., Ouyang, H., Chai, Z. F., Feng, W. Y. & Zhao, Y. L. 2011. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation induced by iron oxide nanoparticle exposure: Risk factors for early atherosclerosis. Toxicol Lett, 203, 162-71.
Zuurbier, M., Hoek, G., Oldenwening, M., Meliefste, K., Krop, E., van den Hazel, P. & Brunekreef, B. 2011. In-traffic air pollution exposure and CC16, blood coagulation, and inflammation markers in healthy adults. Environ Health Perspect, 119, 1384-9.

第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔