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研究生:沈珊米
研究生(外文):Shan-Mi Shen
論文名稱:葡萄柚精油對大學生自主神經活性及認知功能之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Grapefruit Essential Oil on Autonomic Nervous Activity and Cognitive Functions in College Students
指導教授:羅俊智
指導教授(外文):Jun-Chih Lo
口試委員:歐明秋陳秋媛王昱海
口試委員(外文):Ming-Chiu OuChiu-Yuan ChenYu-Hai Wang
口試日期:2014-06-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:自然醫學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:葡萄柚精油自主神經活性心率變異注意力記憶力
外文關鍵詞:Grapefruit essential oilAutonomic nerve activityHeart rate variability (HRV)AttentionMemory
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背景及目的:先前的研究指出植物精油會影響人體自主神經活性及認知功能。有關葡萄柚精油的研究顯示,它能提高年輕女性的交感神經活性,且會促使老鼠的胃迷走神經(副交感)活性降低;然而,這在年輕男性的身上或在人類副交感神經活性的變化上是否也有類似的效果,則尚未獲得明確的研究證實。而在認知功能的研究結果則顯示檸檬精油能增加小學生的注意力、記憶力和相關的認知學習;由於葡萄柚精油與檸檬精油同樣是芸香科柑橘屬的果實類精油,因而推測葡萄柚精油可能也具有增加大學生注意力和記憶力的效果。另外,有文獻指出女性有較高的嗅覺敏感度,對於環境氣味知覺有較大的敏感性、行為也較容易受影響。所以,本研究的目的是要探討葡萄柚精油對於自主神經活性及注意力、記憶力之影響,及二者之間的相關性;同時也探討葡萄柚精油對不同性別的大學生是否會產生不同的影響。
材料及方法:本研究為分層隨機對照實驗設計,收案對象為南部某大學之在學學生,收案時間為民國103年3月至民國103年4月。將100位大學生先分為男、女不同性別,再依隨機抽樣分派至葡萄柚精油組及水組。實驗一為自主神經活性檢測,使用生理回饋分析儀收集心電圖、皮膚溫度及皮膚電導等生理數據,受試者共計47人;實驗二為認知測驗,使用電腦軟體所設計的認知測驗來評估受試者注意力及記憶力之表現,共計100人參加。數據先以Excel進行資料建檔,再用SPSS 18.0 for Windows套裝軟體進行統計分析。
結果:在自主神經活性的研究結果顯示,兩組前測與後測之組間比較皆未達顯著差異,顯示葡萄柚精油對大學生自主神經活性的影響效果不明顯;若分成男、女不同性別進行探討,男生及女生在前測與後測之組間比較亦皆未達顯著差異,顯示葡萄柚精油對於男女不同性別在自主神經活性的影響效果皆不明顯。而在認知的研究結果顯示,兩組在總體上皆未達顯著性差異,顯示葡萄柚精油對認知功能之影響效果不明顯;若分為男、女不同性別進行探討,則男性精油組在Digit vigilance task的正確率達顯著性差異,反映葡萄柚精油有助於男性在長時間工作注意力之維持;而女性精油組在Spatial working memory的正確率達顯著性差異,反映葡萄柚精油有助於女性在短時間內保持空間訊息的活躍。而綜合先前及本研究中的實驗結果顯示,自主神經活性的改變和注意力、記憶力的降低或改善二者之間目前尚未發現具有相關性,未來若有更多類似的研究,則也許會有更明確的結論。
Background and Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated that essential oils can affect human autonomic nervous activity and cognitive functions. Researches about grapefruit essential oil showed it can enhance young women’s sympathetic nervous activity and decrease gastric vagal nervous activity of animals. However, it is not clear if grapefruit essential oil has any effect on young men or on human parasympathetic nervous activity. Moreover, study found that lemon essential oil can increase elementary school students' attention, memory and related cognitive learning. Because both grapefruit and lemon essential oils belong to Rutaceae Citrus spp. and fruit essential oils, it is reasonable to assume that grapefruit essential oil can also increase college students’ attention and memory. In addition, some studies indicated that women were more sensitive to environmental odors and their behaviors are easily affected by odors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of grapefruit essential oils on autonomic nervous activity, attention, and memory of college students, and find out if there is any correlation between autonomic nervous activity and cognitive functions and whether there is gender-specific effect.
Materials and Methods: This study used a stratified random sampling controlled trials design. Participants were students studying at a university in the southern Taiwan. The experiments were conducted from March to April 2014. Fifty male and fifty female students were recruited and were randomly assigned to essential oil group and water group. Experiment one was to monitor forty-seven subjects’ autonomic nervous activity including ECG, skin temperature and skin conductance by using biofeedback sensors before and after inhalation of essential oil vapor or water vapor. Experiment two was to assess one hundred subjects’ cognitive performance of attention and memory by using computer software after inhalation of essential oil vapor or water vapor. Excel and SPSS 18.0 for Windows were used to do data analysis and statistical tests.
Results: No significant differences of autonomic nervous activity were found between these two groups in pretest and posttest. Also no significant differences were found between male or female students in these two groups. These results showed grapefruit essential oils did not alter autonomic nervous activity. We also found no significant differences between these two groups in six cognitive tests. But male students in essential oil group had better correct rate in digit vigilance task than that in control group, reflecting grapefruit essential oil can help maintain long time attention for male students. We also found female students in essential oil group had better correct rate in spatial working memory than that in control group, reflecting grapefruit essential oil can help keep spatial information active over a short period of time for female students. Comparison of previous studies and this study it seems to show that it is not relevant between autonomic nervous activity changes and reduction or improvement of attention or memory. More similar studies will be helpful to have a more definitive conclusion in the future.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT iii
目 次 vi
表目次 xi
圖目次 xii
第一章 緒 論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機 4
1.3 研究目的 6
第二章 文獻回顧 7
2.1嗅覺與生理 7
2.2自主神經系統 11
2.2.1心率變異(Heart rate variability,HRV) 12
2.2.2皮膚溫度(Skin temperature,S Temp) 16
2.2.3皮膚電導(Skin conductance,SC ) 17
2.2.4氣味對自主神經活性影響之相關研究 18
2.3 認知功能 20
2.3.1認知功能之定義 20
2.3.2氣味與認知功能之相關研究 21
2.4葡萄柚精油之介紹 23
第三章 研究方法 25
3.1 研究架構 25
3.2 研究對象與研究場所 26
3.3 研究工具 28
3.4 實驗設計及方法 35
3.5 資料收集 36
3.6 資料處理與分析 36
第四章 研究結果 38
4.1水及精油介入前自主神經活性之比較 38
4.1.1時域分析 38
4.1.2頻域分析 38
4.1.3其他數值分析 38
4.2男生組—水及精油介入前自主神經活性之比較 40
4.2.1時域分析 40
4.2.2頻域分析 40
4.2.3其他數值分析 40
4.3女生組—水及精油介入前自主神經活性之比較 42
4.3.1時域分析 42
4.3.2頻域分析 42
4.3.3其他數值分析 42
4.4水介入前後測自主神經活性之比較 44
4.4.1時域分析 44
4.4.2頻域分析 44
4.4.3其他數值分析 44
4.5男生組—水介入前後測自主神經活性之比較 46
4.5.1時域分析 46
4.5.2頻域分析 46
4.5.3其他數值分析 46
4.6女生組—水介入前後測自主神經活性之比較 48
4.6.1時域分析 48
4.6.2頻域分析 48
4.6.3其他數值分析 48
4.7精油介入前後測自主神經活性之比較 50
4.7.1時域分析 50
4.7.2頻域分析 50
4.7.3其他數值分析 50
4.8男生組—精油介入前後測自主神經活性之比較 52
4.8.1時域分析 52
4.8.2頻域分析 52
4.8.3其他數值分析 52
4.9女生組—精油介入前後測自主神經活性之比較 54
4.9.1時域分析 54
4.9.2頻域分析 54
4.9.3其他數值分析 54
4.10水及精油介入後自主神經活性之比較 56
4.10.1時域分析 56
4.10.2頻域分析 56
4.10.3其他數值分析 56
4.11男生組—水及精油介入後自主神經活性之比較 58
4.11.1時域分析 58
4.11.2頻域分析 58
4.11.3其他數值分析 58
4.12女生組—水及精油介入後自主神經活性之比較 60
4.12.1時域分析 60
4.12.2頻域分析 60
4.12.3其他數值分析 60
4.13精油及水介入認知測驗之組間比較 62
4.13.1認知測驗之反應準確率比較 62
4.13.2認知測驗之反應時間比較 62
4.14男性精油及水介入認知測驗之組間比較 64
4.14.1認知測驗之反應準確率比較 64
4.14.2認知測驗之反應時間比較 64
4.15女性精油及水介入認知測驗之組間比較 66
4.15.1認知測驗之反應準確率比較 66
4.15.2認知測驗之反應時間比較 66
第五章 討論 68
5.1 葡萄柚精油對自主神經活性之影響的討論 68
5.2 葡萄柚精油對注意力及記憶力之影響的討論 69
5.3精油對自主神經活性的改變以及對注意力、記憶力影響之相關性 72
第六章 結論與建議 74
6.1結論 74
6.2建議 75
參考文獻 76
中文部分 76
英文部分 79
附錄一 葡萄柚精油分析資料 86
附錄二 人體試驗委員同意書 87
附錄三 受試者暨家長同意書 89
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