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研究生:許凱婷
研究生(外文):Kai-Ting Shiu
論文名稱:梅納反應產生牛肉香氣之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Maillard Reaction Contributed to Beef-like Process Flavour
指導教授:邱一鳴劉伯康劉伯康引用關係
指導教授(外文):E-Mean ChiuBo-Kang Liou
口試委員:駱錫能馮臨惠邱詩揚
口試委員(外文):Shyi-Neng LouLin-Huei FerngShy-Yang Chiou
口試日期:2014-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:梅納反應感官品評氣相層析質譜儀分析
外文關鍵詞:Maillard reactionsensory analysisgas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis
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肉品具香氣最主要的原因是肉品在加熱的過程中,所含的醣類和胺基酸經由梅納反應生成具有肉味的揮發性化合物。許多模擬肉製品的肉類香料藉由酵母水解液和動物水解蛋白提供完整的氨基酸和醣類來製備反應香料。本報告的目的是以醣類、胺基酸、牛肉酵素水解液和酵母水解液模擬牛肉在加熱過程中產生牛肉香氣的模式,找到消費者認為最能模擬牛肉香氣的配方。本研究以氣相層析質譜儀分析反應香料產生的揮發性化合物,結合感官品評分析來探討反應香料的氣味特性。結果顯示,以GC/MS鑑定反應香料中的揮發性化合物含有一種醇類(alcohol)、十六種醛類(aldehyde)、一種酮類(ketone)、一種噻唑(thiazole)、十四種 呋喃(furan)、一種吡嗪(pyrazine) 、四種 噻吩(thiophene)和三種硫化物(sulfide)。在改變含白胺酸和離胺酸含量的試驗中,由9分法、排序法和自由選擇法的分析結果得知由白胺酸0.4克和 離胺酸0.6克所產生的反應香料,在牛肉香氣喜歡程度最佳,並具有較強的肉品香味,結合儀器分析和統計的結果得知3-methylthiophene和4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol的含量與肉品的氣味特性具高度正相關性。固定白胺酸量為0.4克,離胺酸的量為0.6克以進行後續改變含硫化合物組成的試驗中,由9分法、排序法和自由選擇法的分析結果得知,半胱胺酸0.45克硫胺素0.6克所產生的反應香料,在牛肉香氣喜歡程度最佳,並具有較強的肉品香味。結合儀器分析和統計的結果得知和2-methyl-3-furanthil、4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol和未知化合物8的含量與肉品的氣味特性具高度正相關性,因此之後樣品的含硫化合物組合固定為半胱胺酸0.45克和硫胺素 0.6克以進行後續的基底物組合試驗。最後由9分法、排序法和自由選擇法的分析結果得知,牛肉酵素水解液61.08克加上酵母酵素水解液20.36克(B3Y1)所產生的反應香料,在整體牛肉香氣喜歡程度最佳且具有較強的牛肉氣味和肉品香氣特性。結合儀器分析和統計的結果得知和 n-dodecanal、4-hexen-3-one、benzaldehyde、thiophenecarboxaldehyde和tetrahydro-2-furanmethanol含量與肉品氣味特性具高度正相關性。因此本研究最後決定最能模擬牛肉香氣的配方為半胱胺酸(0.45 g)、 硫胺素(0.6 g)、牛磺酸(0.5 g)、葡萄糖(1 g)、木醣(1 g)、牛油(10 g) 、白胺酸(0.4 g)、離胺酸(0.6g)和安琪酵母粉(4 g)加入牛肉酵素水解液61.08克和酵母酵素水解液20.36克在121oC加熱下加熱2小時即可得。
It is well-known that meat flavour is thermally derived through the Maillard reaction. Many desirable meat flavor volatiles are synthesized by heating water-soluble precursors such as amino acids and carbohydrates. There have been various types of simulated meat flavours recombined through flavor components isolated from cooked meat products prepared from hydrolyzed yeast and enzymatically hydrolyzed beef. The purpose of this study was to find out the best combination of amino acids, sugars, hydrolyzed yeast and hydrolyzed beef. Using descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis to investigate changes in aroma characteristics of beef-like process flavours. The results showed that the volatile compounds of process flavour, contained 17 aldehydes, 2 alcohols, 2 ketones, 1 thiazole, 12 furans, 3 thiophenes and 1 dimethyl trisulfide. The result of sensory analysis confirmed that the processed flavor of leucine (L) 0.40g and lysine (L) 0.6g was strong in beefy, meaty and meat-related characteristics and had high correlation with the following compounds: 3-methylthiophene, and 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol in sample. Therefore the amount of leucine and lysine would be fix in 0.4 g and 0.6 g to go on the next experiment. The result of sensory analysis confirmed that the sample with cysteine (0.45 g) with thiamine (0.6 g) had high correlation with overall liking and beef odor liking. Presumably due to cysteine (Cys) 0.45 g and thiamine (THI) 0.6 g had high correlation with the following compounds: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 4-methyl-5-thiazoleethanol and unknown8 in sample. As the result, the component of sulfur compounds would decide to be cysteine 0.45 g and thiamine 0.6 g to go on the next experiment. The result of sensory analysis confirmed that the processed flavor of beef hydrolysate 61.08 g and yeast hydrolysate 20.36 g were strong in beefy, meaty and meat-related characteristics and had high correlation with the following compounds: n-dodecanal, 4-hexen-3-one, tetrahydro-2-furanmethanol, thiophenecarboxaldehyde and benzaldehyde in sample. The final result showed that cysteine (0.45 g), thiamine (0.6g), taurine (0.5g), glucose (1g), xylose (1g), tallow (10 g), leucine (0.4 g), lysine (0.6 g), Angel yeast powder (4 g) with beef hydrolysate 61.08 g and yeast hydrolysate 20.36 g are the best combination to mimic beef odor.
摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧 2
一、肉品香氣的前驅物 2
(一) 水溶性化合物 2
(二) 油脂 3
二、肉品香氣產生的途徑 3
(一) 梅納反應(Maillard reaction) 4
(二) 油脂氧化裂解 6
(三) 油脂和梅納反應交互作用 8
(四) Thiamine裂解 10
三、肉品反應香料 12
四、酵素水解液 13
(一) 酵母酵素水解液 13
(二) 牛肉酵素水解液 14
參、實驗架構 15
肆、材料與方法 19
一、實驗材料 19
二、標準品 19
三、酵素製劑 19
四、儀器與設備 19
五、感官品評用具 20
六、實驗方法 21
(一) 酵素水解液製備 21
(二) 反應液製備 21
(三) 香氣成分分析 23
(四) 感官品評 26
伍、結果與討論 29
一、牛肉反應香料揮發性化合物的鑑定 29
(一) 醇類、酮類、醛類吡嗪和噻唑 35
(二) 呋喃、噻吩和硫化物 36
二、系統模式中不同胺基酸、含硫化合物和基底的變化對揮發性化合物的影響 38
(一) 系統模式中白胺酸 (L)和離胺酸 (K)含量的變化對揮發性化合物的影響 38
(二) 系統模式中不同含硫化合物組成對揮發性化合物的影響 47
(三) 系統模式中不同基底物質的組成對揮發性化合物的影響 57
三、系統模式中不同胺基酸、含硫化合物和基底的變化對於GC/MS預測結果及感官品評結果相關性之探討 67
(一) 白胺酸 (L)和離胺酸 (K)含量變化對GC/MS分析和感官品評之相關性 67
(二) 含硫化合物組合對GC/MS分析和感官品評之相關性 75
(三) 不同基底組合對GC/MS分析和感官品評之相關性 83
四、最佳的牛肉味反應香料配方 91
陸、結論 92
柒、參考文獻 93
捌、附錄 103
一、感官品評之樣品計畫書 103
二、消費者品評試驗之品評單 111
三、自由選擇法試驗之品評單 113


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