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研究生:鄭功蔚
研究生(外文):Kung Wei Cheng
論文名稱:應用被動式超高頻RFID 技術於室內定位之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Application of Passive UHF RFID on Indoor Positioning
指導教授:黃朝曦黃朝曦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chao-Hsi Huang
口試委員:楊明玉陳偉銘
口試日期:2014-10-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:超高頻RFID室內定位訊號衰減判斷
外文關鍵詞:Indoor positioningUHF RFIDDecreased Signal Strength
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隨著科技的進步以及行動裝置的普及化,現今的社會已經不是人手一支智慧型行動裝置而是好幾隻在手上,由於目前智慧型行動裝置中大多都有內建全球定位系統(GPS)搭配上地圖的使用可以說是非常的方便,但若是室內定位,GPS所提供的服務則相對地削弱許多也因此可以得知室內定位這項技術是有其開發以及研究的必要性的。
RFID在近年來的應用與推廣可以說是蓬勃日上,在生活的周遭皆可以看見RFID的蹤影,從交通工具、小額付費甚至到家裡皆可以使用RFID進行判別與應用。想當然耳,在室內定位上,RFID也占了一席之地並與其他定位技術並駕齊驅。本研究在參考相關文獻之後自行開發定位程式,旨在針對內建UHF RFID的行動裝置來進行定位服務。其定位方法是將參考標籤以固定距離架設在牆壁靠近天花板的地方,令內建UHF RFID讀取器的行動裝置讀取標籤,並依照本研究所提出的訊號衰減與距離關係來判斷參考標籤與讀取器之間的距離,在收集完相關資料之後再以數學進行運算即可達到定位效果。完成定位之後再以本研究所提出的誤差判斷以達到最佳定位估算的結果。

Nowadays technology and smart mobile devices are getting more and more popular. The growing speed of technologies is rapid. People now will not only have one smart mobile device with them but instead perhaps two or three are carried along. With the full function of smart mobile devices almost all are coming with Global Position System-enabled (GPS-enabled). The GPS has become a must accessory in a smart mobile device. GPS was made for outdoor positioning so it works perfectly at outdoors. However, the limitation of GPS is it cannot provide the same service at indoors. Although with the help of AGPS(Assist GPS) indoor positioning is a little more accurate but the rate of error is still large. Therefore, to solve the problems of indoor positioning the research of this issue is necessary.
In recent years, more and more applications of RFID have been presented. The usage of RFID can be seen almost everywhere. From transportations to purchase payment even at home we can use RFID as an identifier and trigger for door and lights. As for indoor positioning, RFID also has its important role and differences with other technologies.
In this thesis, a computer program has been written with referencing of other documents. The program is use for indoor positioning with built-in UHF RFID smart mobile device as instrument. The way of this solution is to put RFID Tags on to the wall and use the UHF RFID Reader to read. By using the “Decreased Transition Signal Strength and Distance” chart which is also proposed in this paper we will know the distance between Reader and Tags. Once the distances and other data are collected we can calculate the position of UHF Reader/ built-in UHF RFID smart mobile device.

摘要 ................................................................... I
Abstract ...............................................................II
第一章 緒論 ............................................................. 1
1.1 研究背景、動機與目的 ..................................................1
1.2 重要性及貢獻 .........................................................2
1.3 論文架構 .............................................................3
第二章 文獻探討 .......................................................... 4
2.1 RFID 介紹 ........................................................... 4
2.1.1 RFID 系統架構 .......................................................4
2.1.2 RFID 運作原理 ...................................................... 5
2.1.3 RID 頻率分布 ....................................................... 6
2.2 相關技術介紹與討論 .................................................... 7
2.2.1 定位技術 ............................................................8
一、 紅外線 ...............................................................8
二、 超音波 ...............................................................8
三、 無線區域網路 ..........................................................9
四、 藍芽 .................................................................9
五、 ZigBee ..............................................................10
六、 無線射頻辨識技術 .....................................................10
2.2.2 常見的定位方法 ......................................................15
一、 訊號抵達角度(AOA).....................................................16
二、 訊號抵達時間(TOA) ....................................................17
三、 訊號抵達時間差(TDOA) .................................................18
四、 接收訊號強度(RSS) ....................................................19
2.3 色彩辨識 .............................................................21
第三章 研究方法 ...........................................................22
3.1 實驗環境及設備 ........................................................22
3.2 實驗條件 ..............................................................25
3.3 定位方式 ..............................................................27
3.4 誤差判定 ..............................................................29
第四章 實驗結果與分析 ......................................................30
4.1 取得參考點距離 ........................................................30
4.2 定位估算 .............................................................35
4.3 誤差排除 .............................................................36
4.3.1 改變黏貼位置 .......................................................37
4.3.2 顏色判別 ...........................................................37
4.3.3 捨棄判斷 ...........................................................38
4.4 實驗數據 .............................................................39
第五章 結論與未來展望 .....................................................42
5.1 結論 .................................................................42
5.2 未來展望 .............................................................43
參考文獻 .................................................................44
附錄一 程式碼 ............................................................46
附錄二 數據資料 ..........................................................59
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