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研究生:陳胤嘉
研究生(外文):Chen, Yin-Jia
論文名稱:影響遊客旅遊忠誠度及遊憩效益因素之探討—以宜蘭縣農業旅遊為例
論文名稱(外文):Survey on the Influential Factors of Visitor’s Loyalty and Recreation Benefits – An Example of Agri-tourism in Yilan County
指導教授:陳凱俐陳凱俐引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Kai-Lih
口試委員:傅祖壇吳宗瓊
口試日期:2014-04-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:應用經濟與管理學系應用經濟學碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:遊憩效益旅遊成本法現場卜瓦松訊息來源旅遊忠誠度
外文關鍵詞:Recreation BenefitsTravel Cost Method (TCM)On-Site PoissonMessage RecourseTravel loyalty
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農業旅遊的發展對整體觀光旅遊產業有很重要的影響,宜蘭縣2013年農業旅遊人數達661萬人次,為全國第一(占23.72%)。而根據行銷的二八法則,20%的回頭客提供了一個企業80%的營業額,如何提高顧客忠誠度是維持產業持續發展的重要課題。若能瞭解影響遊客旅遊忠誠度的因素,便能將有限的資源做最好的利用,訂定出最有效的發展策略。
本研究依據Oliver(1997)對忠誠度的分類,將遊客之旅遊忠誠度分為行為忠誠度與態度忠誠度,並參考Jones and Sasser(1995)對消費者忠誠度之衡量方式,以遊客到訪的旅遊次數衡量行為忠誠度,以遊客向親友推薦來此旅遊的意願與遊客自己未來的再遊意願衡量態度忠誠度。
本研究首先探討影響休閒農業遊客旅遊忠誠度的因素,根據「101年宜蘭縣休閒農業經濟效益評估結案報告」之各農業旅遊場所全年遊客數及經營項目,依各休閒農業區域遊客數佔總遊客數的比率抽樣,於2013年7月至8月進行遊客問卷調查,並將問卷調查地點與該報告比對後可得到農業旅遊場所的經營項目。本研究針對其中的908位自由行遊客進行分析,採用旅遊成本法(Travel Cost Method, TCM),以可以修正現場樣本內生分層與截斷問題的現場卜瓦松(On-Site Poisson)模型建構旅遊需求函數,在建構時除了放入旅遊成本、停留時間、個人社經背景變數以及專程或順道(黃雅蘭和陳凱俐,2011)外,另納入遊客訊息來源及農業旅遊場所之經營項目,並以卡方差異檢定(chi-square different test)中不限定模式與限定模式的概念,檢定出最適合的旅遊需求函數模型後,探討影響行為忠誠度(以旅遊次數代表)的因素。
行為忠誠度之研究結果顯示,將訊息來源及農業旅遊場所經營項目納入旅遊需求函數後,能夠顯著提升模型的解釋能力,代表在建構旅遊需求函數時,遊客訊息來源及休閒農業場所經營項目不應該被忽略。而訊息來源中「自己經驗」對行為忠誠有正向影響,「公共訊息來源」對行為忠誠則有負向影響;所在的農業旅遊場所經營項目類別包含「餐飲」者對行為忠誠有正向影響,包含「體驗」或「住宿」者,對行為忠誠則為負向影響。
建構旅遊需求函數後,即可估計旅遊之總經濟效益(即需求線以下與旅遊次數所夾的面積),包含遊憩效益與貨幣效益兩部分,此二部分皆與旅遊次數具函數關係。其中,遊憩效益所佔比率較大,卻是容易被忽略的部分,而根據過去文獻,遊憩效益亦是態度忠誠度的影響因素。
從態度忠誠度來看,本研究以遊客向親友推薦來此旅遊的意願及自己再次來此旅遊的意願兩項變數之算術平均數衡量,並藉由路徑分析法瞭解遊客遊憩效益、遊客滿意度及遊客支出等三項態度忠誠度之解釋變數的影響效果。而為了對農業旅遊經營者提出更好的建議,本研究將遊客支出區分為體驗、餐飲、住宿、伴手禮、交通與交通時間的機會成本。研究結果顯示,各解釋變數對態度忠誠度都有正向的影響效果,而依照影響效果由大至小排列,遊客滿意度為最大,其次為遊客遊憩效益,再次依序為遊客體驗支出、遊客餐飲支出、遊客住宿支出、遊客交通支出與交通時間的機會成本、遊客伴手禮支出。
由以上結果,建議宜蘭縣農業旅遊場所經營者可以在營業項目中包含「餐飲」,設法讓遊客有更多首次來訪的機會,並留下良好的經驗,以增加遊客旅遊之行為忠誠;同時,提高遊客在農業旅遊場所內的滿意度以及在「體驗」項目的支出,讓遊客有更高的遊憩效益,以增加遊客旅遊之態度忠誠,使農業旅遊成為永續發展的產業。

The development of agri-tourism has created significant important effect on the entire tourism industry. In 2013, the number of tourists visited Yilan County for agri-tourism reached 6.61 millions (about 23.72% of the country) which is the most visited area in the country. According to the 80/20 marketing rule, 80% of total revenue is generated by the 20% re-buyers, therefore, it is critical to raise the customers’ loyalty to the sustainable development of an industry. By understanding the factors that cause the travel loyalty of the tourists, limited resources can be used to their best and effective developing strategies.
The loyalty classification in this study referred to Oliver’s (1997) loyalty which includes behavior loyalty and attitude loyalty. The customers’ loyalty was measured, according to Jones and Sasser (1995), by the frequencies of visiting as attitude loyalty and by the willingness to recommend to their relatives and friends and their own revisiting in the future as attitude loyalty.
The factors that affect the travel loyalty of agri-tourism were first studied. Interviewing questionnaires were carried in July and August, 2013. Interviewees were sampled according to the ratio of tourist’s number of an individual agri-tourism site to the year-round tourist’s number recorded in the “The final report of 2012 Yilan County leisure agricultural economic valuation”. The business items of each interviewing site in the following study were also referred to the report. This study analyzed questionnaires of 908 self-trip tourists by Travel Cost Method (TCM), and adopted on-site Poisson model to correct the endogenous stratification and truncation problem of on-site sample to build the travel demand function. In addition to the factors of travel cost, soci-economic variables, single or multiple destination trips adopted by Hwang and Chen (2011), the message resource of tourism and business items of agri-tourism sites were also included in the model. The concept of unconstrained model and constrained model in the chi-square different test were applied to construct optimal travel demand function and to reveal the factors that affect the behavior loyalty, which is represented by the frequency of visits.
Results from behavior loyalty study reveal that model explaining power was significantly increased by adopting the message resource and business items of the agri-tourism sites into the travel demand function, which indicates that tourist’s message resources and business items of leisure agricultural sites should not be ignored. Among message resources, “self experience” shows positive effect on behavior loyalty, and “pubic message resources” was of the opposite. Among the items of business studied, “catering” shows positive effect on behavioral loyalty while “experiencing” and “accommodation” indicate negative effects.
After the construction of the travel demand function, estimation of the total economic benefit rendered by touring (the area between the demand curve and the number of travel) which includes recreation benefits and currency benefits were made possible. Recreation benefit, one of the effective factors of attitudinal loyalty according to references, has a larger portion but is easily to be ignored.
The attitudinal loyalty was measured by the arithmetic average of willingness of tourists to recommend and to revisit the site. Path analysis was applied to understand the influences of the three variables, recreation benefit, tourists’ satisfaction and tourists’ expense, on attitude loyalty.
In order to provide better advices to agri-tourism managers, this study separates tourists’ expenses into experiencing, catering, accommodation, souvenir, traffic and the opportunity cost of traffic time. Results show that all the explainable variables of tourists have positive effects on their attitude loyalty. The sequence of variables from the largest effect to the least are satisfaction, recreation benefit, experiencing activity cost, catering cost, accommodation cost, traffic cost and the opportunity cost of traffic time, and souvenir cost.
From results above, we recommend that agri-tourism managers in Yilan Country may include catering to their business and try to attract tourists to make their first visit and to obtain good experience, to create the behavioral loyalty of the tourists. Meanwhile, increase tourists’ satisfaction on agri-tourism sites and the expenses on experiencing activities may also raise recreation benefits and attitudinal loyalty of tourists and render agri-tourism a sustainable developing industry.

摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 x
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究流程與方法 3
第貳章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 旅遊忠誠度 5
第二節 以消費決策模式導入旅遊忠誠度 15
第三節 遊憩效益 19
第四節 小結 23
第參章 理論模型 25
第一節 研究架構 25
第二節 旅遊成本法與遊憩效益 27
第三節 現場卜瓦松模型 29
第四節 卡方差異檢定 33
第五節 路徑分析 33
第六節 多元迴歸模型 35
第七節 實證模型建構 36
第肆章 實證研究 41
第一節 資料來源 41
第二節 旅遊成本 45
第三節 敘述統計 48
第四節 實證結果與分析 61
第伍章 結論與建議 76
第一節 結論 76
第二節 建議 78
第三節 研究限制及後續研究建議 80
參考文獻 81
中文部分 81
英文部分 83
附錄 102年度農業旅遊經濟效益評估—遊客問卷 88

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