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研究生:許琮岳
研究生(外文):Hsu Tsung Yueh
論文名稱:遊客對於歷史旅遊景點偏好因素之探討
論文名稱(外文):The Investigation of Tourists’ Preference on Historic Tourism Destination
指導教授:張蓓蒂張蓓蒂引用關係
指導教授(外文):Betty Chang
口試委員:薛方杰黃啟祐
口試委員(外文):Fang-Jye ShiueChi-Yo Huang
口試日期:2014-07-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:建築與永續規劃研究所碩士班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:約略集合理論粒子群聚最佳化旅遊景點形象文化旅遊
外文關鍵詞:Rough Sets TheoryParticle Swarm OptimizationTourism Destination ImageCultural Tours
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歷史旅遊景點的行銷是觀光業結合地區文化遺產的重要方式之一。在旅遊業已成為世上最大的跨國經濟活動的今天,全球化趨勢為全世界帶來新的政治與經濟行為,也改變了遊客對旅遊服務的喜好。在全球化的衝擊之下,文化遺產成為了城市與地區競爭力與創造力的新選擇,並透過旅遊業創造出一種與文化遺產之間互助的循環模式。

本文依據Royo-Vela (2009),將旅遊景點形象歸納之八項因素,作為遊客評價歷史旅遊景點之屬性。該八項因素為:(1) 歷史/文化遺產之美、(2) 整潔/寧靜的氣氛感受、(3) 遊客接待/顧客服務、(4) 建築物之維護/整體性、(5) 悠久歷史,秀麗風景、(6) 購物與飲食場所吸引力、(7) 旅遊/文化管理以及(8) 相關配套/基礎建設。

本文所使用之研究方法,是透過約略集合理論 (Rough Sets Theory)結合粒子群聚最佳化演算法 (Particle Swarm Optimization),將原始問卷分數進行最佳化縮減以獲得更精簡之規則,並從中找尋一系列遊客對於歷史旅遊景點的偏好規則以及所重視的屬性。從1,071筆問卷資料中獲得198條主要規則,以及依據各性別與年齡層個別分析。研究結果顯示,整體遊客對於所到訪之歷史旅遊景點中「整潔/寧靜的氣氛感受」以及「相關配套/基礎建設」兩項屬性有較為看重的趨勢。
The marketing of historical tourism destinations is a technique that integrates tourism with local cultural heritage. Nowadays while tourism has become the most large-scale transnational economic activity, the trend of globalization not only brings new political and economic behavior but also changes tourists’ preference for travel services. With the impact of globalization, cultural heritage has now become the new choice for cities and towns to improve competiveness and creativity, resulting in a mutual beneficial cycle between cultural heritage and tourism.

This study based on Royo-Vela’s ideas (2009), suggested eight factors that decide how tourists evaluate historical tourism destinations. They are (1) Beauty of historic–cultural heritage and feelings generated by its perception, (2) Clean/peaceful atmosphere and feelings generated by its perception, (3) Treatment of tourists/customer service and feelings generated by its perception, (4) Maintenance/integration of site architecture, (5) Historic–scenic wealth, (6) Shopping and eating establishments, (7) Tourist-cultural management, and (8) Complementary tourist offer or infrastructure.

The study adopted Rough Sets Theory as well as Particle Swarm Optimization to explore the patterns of tourists’ preference for historical tourism destinations. 198 rules were found from 1,071 data and later analyzed in terms of gender and age. The results showed that the tourists tend to emphasize the two factors (Clean/peaceful atmosphere and feelings generated by its perception as well as Complementary tourist offer or infrastructure) more than the other six ones.

一、序 1
1.1研究背景與動機 2
1.2研究目的 4
1.3研究流程 5
二、文獻回顧及探討 6
2.1研究對象 6
2.2文化遊客種類 7
2.3旅遊與觀光 8
2.4旅遊業的影響與發展 9
2.5旅遊動機 11
2.5.1推拉理論 (Push and Pull Theory) 11
2.5.2場地理論 (Field Theory) 11
2.5.3需求層次理論 (Need Hierarchy Theory) 12
2.6旅遊景點形象 12
2.7旅遊景點形象形成與相關研究 13
2.8 歷史旅遊景點形象概念化的八項因素 14
2.8.1 歷史/文化遺產之美 14
2.8.2 整潔/寧靜的氣氛感受 16
2.8.3 遊客接待/顧客服務 16
2.8.4 建築物之維護/整體性 18
2.8.5 悠久歷史,秀麗風景 19
2.8.6 購物與飲食場所吸引力 20
2.8.7 旅遊/文化管理 21
2.8.8 相關配套/基礎建設 22
2.9 相關文獻列表 23
三、研究方法 24
3.1粒子群聚演算法 25
3.1.2 粒子群聚演算法之函數 25
3.1.3 演算法流程 26
3.2約略集合應用及基本概念 27
3.2.1名詞定義 27
3.2.2資訊與不可區分性 28
3.2.3下界與上界近似 29
3.2.4 RST上下界的四種情形 31
3.2.4屬性簡化 32
3.2.5分類(Classification) 32
3.2.6決策表(Decision table) 32
3.3 利用PSO演算法尋找RST最佳編碼方式 34
四、問卷設計及資料統計 35
4.1問卷設計 36
4.2問卷資料預處理 37
4.3問卷資料統計 38
五、研究結果與分析 39
5.1 原始資料測試 39
5.2 最佳化編碼資料測試 40
5.2.1 初步分析結果 41
5.2.2 規則縮併 44
5.2.3 小結 46
5.3 性別分析 47
5.3.1 男性遊客規則 48
5.3.2 女性遊客規則 51
5.4年齡層分析 54
5.4.1 18~30歲族群(青年族群) 55
5.4.2 31~50歲族群(中年族群) 58
5.4.3 51以上歲族群(高齡族群) 61
5.4.4 結果與討論 64
六、結論及建議 67
6.1 後續研究建議 68
參考文獻 70
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