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研究生:李秉彥
研究生(外文):Ping-Yen Lee
論文名稱:不同尺度火場能見度推算法則之研究
論文名稱(外文):Establishing scale law of visibility in fires
指導教授:蔡匡忠蔡匡忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuang-Chung Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全衛生工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:能見度消光係數尺度法則電腦模擬
外文關鍵詞:scale lawsmoke productionvisibility
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建築物內發生火災時,產生的濃煙持續在建築物內部蓄積,一但吸入過多濃煙則可能導致嗆傷、死亡;且大量的濃煙使得能見度 (Visibility)下降,在視線狀況不好的環境下,救災人員以及逃生人員無法做出正確的判斷,而造成嚴重的傷亡和損失,因此了解火場中的能見度狀況有利救災及逃生行為。
先前學者透過實驗以及模擬探討能見度的影響因素,然而對於各種尺度大小火場的能見度並沒有太多的探討,故本研究將經由電腦模擬各種尺度火場能見度,推論能見度尺度法則,並探討如何設計模擬參數才能模擬火場之尺度法則,希冀透過尺度法則進行能見度縮小尺度實驗或是縮小尺度模擬,獲得實際火場狀況。
本研究透過先前學者研究結果進行理論分析,並且模擬四種不同尺度 (1:5:10:20)大小之火場,火源使用兩種不同發煙性燃料 (丙烷、庚烷),兩種不同光源強度 (KS=3、KS=8)及不同消光係數 (K)與尺度之關係式 (Km = Kf`、Km / Kf = lf / lm),最後將理論及模擬結果比較驗證,推論能見度之尺度法則 (scale law)。
本研究結果發現,電腦模擬火源設計中,每單位面積熱釋放率 (HRRPUA)應不隨尺度調整,其熱釋放率、溫度、風速的模擬結果才會與尺度法則一致。另外影響能見度的三項參數,參數的設計方式,第一光源強度不隨尺度調整,第二發煙率不需隨尺度改變而調整,第三單位質量消光係數 (Cs)應隨尺度調整,亦即消光係數與尺度關係式為Km / Kf = lf / lm,因此推論出能見度的尺度法則公式為Sm/Sf = lm/lf。
Smoke in building fire can cause injury and death of occupants in two ways, respiratory burning and reduction of visibility. Many previous studies have investigated effect of reduced visibility. There exists a need to evaluate different fire parameters in different scales so that the results of an experiment or numerical simulation in reduced scale can be applied in full-scaled situation. Therefore, this study attempted to include the correlation of visibility (S) in scale law by using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). A total of 4 tests in scale models of 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:20 with two different fuels (propane、heptane) and two different light intensity (KS = 3, KS = 8) were carried out. Additionally, two equations (Km = Kf、Km/Kf = lf/lm) between extinction coefficient (K) and scale (l) were discussed. The FDS results pointed out that Heat Release Rate per Unit AREA (HRRPUA) should be constant in any scale. Light intensity and smoke yield are constant with scale; while specific mass extinction coefficient increases with scale. The extinction coefficient increased with scale was found (Km/Kf = lf/lm). Therefore visibility of scale law was found to be Sm/Sf = lm/lf.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
一、緒論 1
1.1研究動機與目的 1
1.2研究方法及步驟 2
1.3研究範圍與限制 3
1.3.1研究範圍 3
1.3.2研究限制 3
二、文獻回顧 4
2.1火災危害特性 4
2.2 能見度 7
2.3 能見度影響因子 9
2.3.1消光係數 9
2.3.2光源強度 13
2.3.3發煙率 14
2.4 能見度實驗與模擬比對之相關研究 16
2.4.1 全尺度實驗 16
2.4.2 縮小尺度實驗 20
2.4.3 電腦模擬 22
2.5尺度分析 23
2.5.1 Froude number 23
2.5.2 Froude modeling 24
2.6電腦模擬軟體介紹 26
2.6.1 區域模式(Zone model) 26
2.6.2 場模式(Filed model) 26
2.6.3火災動態軟體FDS介紹 27
2.6.4 格點設計 30
三、理論分析 32
四、模擬設計、結果與討論 36
4.1 火源設計分析 40
4.2 能見度參數設計分析 47
4.2.1 光源強度 47
4.2.2 發煙率 49
4.2.3 單位質量消光係數 51
4.2.4 綜合討論 55
五、結論與建議 56
參考文獻 58
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