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研究生:魏淑娟
研究生(外文):Shu-Chuan Wei
論文名稱:百貨業室內環境有機污染物流布之研究
論文名稱(外文):Distribution of organic pollutants in the indoor environment of a shopping mall
指導教授:李家偉李家偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Wei Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:環境與安全衛生工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:揮發性有機物百貨業懸浮微粒半揮發性有機物室內環境
外文關鍵詞:semi-volatile organic compoundsshopping mallvolatile organic compoundsparticulate mattersindoor environment
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國人大部分時間活動於室內環境中,對於室內環境暴露評估及健康風險漸漸凸顯其重要性,過去室內環境研究多以家戶作為研究對象,而對百貨業室內環境污染物研究顯然有限,為瞭解室內環境有機污染物的流布情形,本研究針對一家大型百貨業室內之3C產品專櫃(鄰近地下停車場)、化妝品專櫃、主題餐廳及廚房進行揮發性有機化合物(Volatile Organic Compounds ,VOCs)、醛酮類(Carbonyls)及半揮發性有機污染物(Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds, SVOCs)包含兩大類為鄰苯二甲酸酯類(Phthalate esters, PAEs)、多環芳香烴(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs)、懸浮微粒PM2.5及灰塵之採樣分析及探討有機物流布之情形。研究結果顯示,TVOCs(平均值±標準差)濃度在3C產品專櫃 637.27±645.61µg/m3、大型宴會廚房487.48±383.38µg/m3、咖啡廳463.75±289.26µg/m3、港式廚房 153.68±72.04µg/m3、燒烤廚房 146.87±31.27µg/m3,以上各區均低於室內空氣品質管理法管制標準值。醛酮類以燒烤廚房的甲醛濃度 31.29±20.26µg/m3最高;港式飲茶 30.83±18.15µg/m3次之。PAEs當中檢出鄰苯二甲酸二(2-乙基己基)酯 (di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP)濃度於3C產品專櫃為最高4155ng/m3,可能污染來源為電器產品所使用之電纜線。PAHs研究結果顯示低分子量且高蒸氣壓 (2~3環)之化合物易發現於氣相介質中,反之,高分子量且低蒸氣壓(4環)之化合物較易發現於固相PM2.5介質中,其中氣相萘濃度於各區中,以3C產品專櫃 2312.80 ng/m3為最高。懸浮微粒PM2.5濃度方面,各區域PM2.5濃度分別為化妝品專櫃: 7.33µg/m3;咖啡廳: 8.44µg/m3;3C產品專櫃: 9.55µg/m3;燒烤廚房: 72.77µg/m3,顯示燒烤廚房中易產生濃度較高之細懸浮微粒。
Most of the people spend most of their time in indoor environments, and therefore it is important to understand the health risk posed by human exposure to various organic compounds indoors. Many indoor exposure study conducted in residential areas; however, research focused on the shopping mall is clearly limited. The major purpose of current study is to understand the distributions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile compounds (SVOCs, such as phthalate esters (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) in a shopping mall. Air, particulate matters (PM2.5) and dust samplings were conducted in the 3C store, cosmetics counter, cafe and restaurant kitchen areas of the mall. The results show that TVOCs (mean ± standard deviation) concentrations in 3C products counters, banquet kitchen, cafe, dim sum kitchen and BBQ kitchen were 637.27 ± 645.61, 487.48 ± 383.38, 463.75 ± 289.26, 153.68 ± 72.04 and 146.87 ± 31.27 μg/m3, respectively. Formaldehyde levels were higher in the BBQ kitchen (31.29 ± 20.26 μg/m3) and Dim Sum kitchen (30.83 ± 18.15μg/m3). Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most detected PAEs in this study with highest levels of 4155 ng/m3 in 3C products counters. The lower rings PAHs (2 to 3 rings) were found mostly in vapor phase, whereas the higher rings (above 4 rings) PAHs were detected mostly in the particle phase. Naphthalene is abundant in the mall with highest concentration of 2312.80 ng/m3 in the 3C store near underground parking lot. PM2.5 levels in cosmetics area, 3C products counters, Café and BBQ kitchen were 7.33, 8.44, 9.55 and 72.77 μg/m3, respectively. The BBQ kitchen is an important source of PM2.5 in the mall.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 IV
目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1揮發性有機化合物(VOCs) 4
2-1-1 VOCs種類與物化特性 5
2-1-2 VOCs暴露來源 7
2-1-3 VOCs環境流布 7
2-1-4 VOCs對人體健康危害及毒理資料 7
2-2醛酮類(Carbonyls) 8
2-2-1 醛酮類種類與物化特性 8
2-2-2 醛酮類環境流布 11
2-2-3 醛酮類對人體健康危害及毒理資料 12
2-3 鄰苯二甲酸酯類(PAEs) 13
2-3-1 PAEs種類與物化特性 15
2-3-2 PAEs環境流布 22
2-3-3 PAEs對人體健康危害及毒理資料 25
2-3-4 PAEs對生物體的危害 28
2-3-5 PAEs對飲食安全的影響 28
2-4多環芳香烴(PAHs) 29
2-4-1 PAHs種類與物化特性 29
2-4-2 PAHs的環境流布 33
2-4-3 PAHs對人體的健康危害及毒理資料 34
2-5 懸浮性微粒之健康影響 34
2-6 國內外室內空氣品質文獻彙整 37
第三章 研究方法與設備 44
3-1 研究設計流程 44
3-2 研究區域選定 45
3-3 研究設備與分析儀器 57
3-3-1 研究設備 57
3-3-2 分析儀器 58
3-4 樣本收集及分析 60
3-4-1 揮發性有機物之採樣及分析 60
3-4-2 半揮發性有機物之採樣及分析 70
3-4-3 懸浮微粒PM2.5、PM10採樣及分析 75
第四章 結果與討論 77
4-1室內各區域VOCs之濃度分析 78
4-2室內各區域醛酮類濃度分析 85
4-3室內各區域PAEs流布情形 87
4-3-1室內各區域氣相之PAEs濃度分析 87
4-3-2室內各區域固相(PM2.5)之PAEs濃度分析 92
4-3-3氣相、固相之PAEs濃度流布情形 95
4-3-4灰塵之PAEs濃度分析 97
4-4室內各區域PAHs流布情形 98
4-4-1室內各區域氣相之PAHs濃度分析 98
4-4-2室內各區域固相(PM2.5)之PAHs濃度分析 105
4-5室內空氣中懸浮微粒PM2.5濃度流布情形 112
第五章 結論與建議 114
5-1結論 114
5-2建議 116
參考文獻 117
附錄 122
附錄一 VOCs檢量線 122
附錄二 醛酮類檢量線 125
附錄三 PAEs檢量線 126
附錄四 PAHs檢量線 129


表目錄
表2-1 醛酮類物化特性 10
表2-2 室內有害空氣污染物VOCS吸入之毒性參數 11
表2-3 室內有害空氣污染物(醛酮類)吸入之毒性參數 12
表2-4 PAES常見種類及物化特性 17
表2-5 常見PAES之主要用途 20
表2-6 PAES致癌風險 21
表2-7 毒性化學物質分類特性 23
表2-8 我國環保署公告毒性化學物質及其管制濃度與大量運作基準一覽表 24
表2-9 PAES在歐盟、加拿大、日本及美國目前已列管化合物 26
表2-10 塑化劑每人每日耐受量(TOLERABLE DAILY INTAKE, TDI) 27
表2-11 PAHS化合物之物化特性 30
表2-12 16種PAHS之結構特性 31
表2-13 PM2.5對人體的健康危害 35
表2-14 各國細懸浮微粒空氣品質標準制定現況 36
表2-15 國外室內空氣品質相關文獻回顧 38
表2-16 國內室內空氣品質相關文獻回顧 41
表3-1 採樣點之環境特徵描述 47
表3-2 採樣點規劃表及樣本數量 48
表3-3 國內公告之醛酮類檢測方法 60
表3-4 DNPH匣狀採樣器之物化特性 66
表3-5 HPLC分析條件 67
表3-6 PAHS之氣相層析質譜儀分析條件 73
表4-1 各區域VOCS濃度 79
表4-2 3C產品專櫃裝修前、後VOCS濃度 81
表4-3 各區域VOCS-BTEX濃度 83
表4-4 室內各區域醛酮類濃度 86
表4-5 室內各區域氣相之PAES濃度 88
表4-6 氣相PAES濃度組成百分比 90
表4-7 各地室內空氣中PAES濃度 91
表4-8 室內各區域固相(PM2.5)之PAES濃度 92
表4-9 PM2.5之PAES濃度組成百分比 94
表4-10 各區域灰塵之PAES濃度 97
表4-11 室內各區域氣相之PAHS濃度 99
表4-12 室內各區域氣相PAHS濃度組成百分比 101
表4-13 百貨業室內氣相-PAHS毒性當量及百分比 103
表4-14 室內各區域PM2.5之PAHS濃度 106
表4-15 PM2.5之PAHS濃度組成百分比 108
表4-16 百貨業室內固相PM2.5-PAHS毒性當量及百分比 110
表4-17 各區域懸浮微粒流布情形 112
表4-18 環保署南部空氣品質自動監測懸浮微粒PM2.5濃度 113


圖目錄
圖2-1 SVOCS於室內的逸散及傳輸分佈 14
圖2-2 常見鄰苯二甲酸酯類之化學結構式 16
圖2-3 細懸浮微粒生成機制 36
圖3-1 研究架構圖 44
圖3-2 靜電集塵原理 46
圖3-3 採樣區域平面圖 49
圖3-4 大型宴會廚房環境圖 50
圖3-5 大型宴會廚烹飪作業中 50
圖3-6 港式廚房環境 51
圖3-7 港式廚房(開放廚房)作業中 51
圖3-8 燒烤廚房環境 52
圖3-9 燒烤形式作業中 52
圖3-10 咖啡廳環境 53
圖3-11 3C產品專櫃外通道 53
圖3-12 3C產品專櫃改裝前 54
圖3-13 3C產品專櫃改裝後 54
圖3-14 3C產品專櫃外通道 55
圖3-15 化妝品專櫃環境 55
圖3-16 化妝品專櫃採樣圖 56
圖3-17 外氣進室內空調設備 56
圖3-18 揮發性有機氣體採樣組合 63
圖3-19 熱脫附儀ATD-350 64
圖3-20 高流量採樣幫浦與DNPH-SILICA 吸附管 65
圖3-21 DNPH匣狀採樣器剖面圖 65
圖3-22 醛酮類分析以氰甲烷將吸附管中的DNPH衍生物萃取流程 68
圖3-23 迴流管作索氏萃取 73
圖3-24 PAES(濾紙、吸附劑、灰塵)樣本前處理流程圖 75
圖4-1 室內各區域VOCS濃度流布情形 80
圖4-2 3C專櫃裝修前/後VOCS流布情形 82
圖4-3 各區域VOCS-BTEX濃度流布情形 84
圖4-4 室內各區域醛酮類流布情形 87
圖4-5 室內各區域氣相PAES濃度流布情形 89
圖4-6 室內各區域氣相PAES百分比組成 90
圖4-7 室內各區域固相PM2.5之PAES濃度流布情形 93
圖4-8 室內各區域PM2.5之PAES百分比組成 94
圖4-9 3C產品專櫃氣相、固相之PAES濃度流布情形 95
圖4-10 化妝品專櫃氣相、固相之PAES濃度流布情形 95
圖4-11 咖啡廳氣相、固相之PAES濃度流布情形 96
圖4-12 燒烤廚房氣相、固相之PAES濃度流布情形 96
圖4-13 室內各區域灰塵之PAES濃度分布 98
圖4-14 室內各區域氣相PAHS環境流布情形 100
圖4-15 室內各區域氣相之PAHS百分比組成 102
圖4-16 室內各區域氣相之PAHS當量濃度 102
圖4-17 室內各區域PM2.5之PAHS濃度流布情形 107
圖4-18 室內各區域PM2.5之PAHS百分比組成 109
圖4-19 室內各區域PM2.5之PAHS毒性當量濃度 109
圖4-20 百貨業室內與南部自動空氣品質監測站懸浮微粒PM2.5比較 113
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