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研究生:蔡碧娟
研究生(外文):Pi-Chuan Tsai
論文名稱:應用多媒體教學於國中生聽力與單字習得效益之相關研究
論文名稱(外文):THE EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA ON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ LISTENING ABILITY AND VOCABULARY ACQUISITION
指導教授:陳靖奇陳靖奇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Ching-chi Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:單字習得聽力視聽媒體
外文關鍵詞:vocabulary acquisitionlistening comprehensionaudio-visual
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中文摘要

  本研究旨在探討將英語歌曲和短篇故事以多媒體的方式(特別是和You Tube和DVD)融入教學對國中學生字彙習得、英語聽力理解以及英語學習動機的效益研究。研究對象以南台灣某所國中二班一年級56位國一學生,並且更進一步將學生分為程度較高組(前三分之一)以及程度較低組(後三分之一),以探討不同稱度的國中學生在字彙習得、英語聽力進步有無差異。
  本實驗為期十週,第一周對參與學生進行單字前測(包含本實驗的40個主要單字)以及聽力前測(全民英檢初級聽力測驗類題),並且施行一份有關本研究的前測問卷;第二週到第九週施行「英語歌曲和短篇故事融入教學」的實驗教學方式,每週聽一首英語歌曲和一篇短篇故事,第十週對參與的學生進行單字後測(包含本實驗的40個主要單字)以及聽力後測(全民英檢初級聽力測驗類題),並且施行一份有關本研究的後測問卷。
  研究結果如下: (1) 根據前後測聽力測驗的量化分析,以英語歌曲和短篇故事作為補充教材對於學生的聽力理解有所助益,在聽力後測上,程度較高組及程度較低組都有進步,但兩者間的差異不明顯。(2) 根據前後測單字測驗的量化分析,以英語歌曲和短篇故事融入教學能增進學生的字彙習得,在單字後測上,程度較高組及程度較低組都有進步; 程度較高組進步的幅度大過程度較低組,但兩者間的差異也不明顯。 (3) 大部分學生對英語歌曲和短篇故事融入教學表達喜愛,並且肯定他對英語學習的助益,他們更表達自己在聽力理解方面更有自信。
  雖然此研究仍有改善的空間,整體而言,從參與者所展現出令人滿意的結果可以推知,英語歌曲和短篇故事融入教學是可行的;此外,基於他所帶來字彙量的增加、聽力理解能力的增進以及正向的英語學習態度等效益,研究者建議英語教師可以融入多媒體呈現的英語歌曲和短篇故事於教學中,或鼓勵學生多多聽YouTube上的英語歌曲和多媒體呈現的英語故事。如此一來,不僅可以增進學生的英語字彙及聽力表現,對於學生的英語學習動機亦有所提升。

ABSTRACT
The present study aims to investigate the effects of English songs and short stories through multimedia on EFL junior high school students’ vocabulary acquisition, listening comprehension, and English learning motivation. The participants in this study were 56 seventh graders from two classes in a public junior high school in southern Taiwan. Based on the participants’ mean scores of three English mid-term exams in the previous semester prior to the experiment, they were further divided into three proficiency groups. The participants form the top 33 percent of the population were categorized into the high-proficiency group (HG), while the bottom 33 percent counterparts were classified as the low-proficiency group (LG).
The whole experiment lasted for ten weeks. In the first week, all of the participants had to take a vocabulary pretest of 40 target words chosen from eight episodes form the book “On The Go,” eight English songs on YouTube, and a listening pre-test adapted from Authentic Simulated GEPT Listening Tests: Elementary Level; in addition, a pre-study questionnaire was also administered. From the second to the ninth week, the participants viewed eight episodes from “On The Go” and listened to eight English songs on You Tube. In the last week, the participants also had to take two tests, a vocabulary post-test and a listening post-test to be equivalent, and identical test was adopted in both tests. After the test, a post-test questionnaire was conducted.
According to the quantitative and qualitative data analysis, the findings of the present study are summarized as follows. First of all, based on their scores from the vocabulary pretest to post-test, all of the participants demonstrated significant vocabulary gain after the aural-visual learning program; the HG made much more progress in vocabulary gain than the LG. However, there was no significant difference in vocabulary gain between the high- and low-proficiency groups. Second, based on their
scores from the listening pretest to post-test, all the participants made moderate
improvement in their listening comprehension ability after the program; nevertheless, there was still no significant difference in listening improvement between the high- and low-proficiency groups. Third, it was even found that nearly all of the participants held a positive attitude towards the program, considered it beneficial to their English learning, and demonstrated more confidence in listening.
Although there is still some room for improvement in the study, as a whole, the results of this study can provide English teachers with evidence that it is possible and practicable to apply English songs and short stories through multimedia to language teaching in junior high school in Taiwan. Moreover, based on the participants’ increased vocabulary size, improved listening comprehension ability, and enhanced English learning motivation, it is highly suggested that English teachers bring English songs and short stories through multimedia more often in their teaching.

Keywords: vocabulary acquisition, listening comprehension, audio-visual


TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………… i
CHINESE ABSTRACT…………………….. ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT………………… iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………… v
LIST OF TABLES………………………….. ix
LIST OF FIGURES………………………… xii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION……… 1
1.1 Background and Motivation of the Study……………………………… 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………… 9
1.3 Research Questions……………………………………………………... 10
1.4 Significance of the Study……………………………………………….. 10
1.5 Limitations of the Study………………………………………………… 11
1.6 Definition of Terms……………………………………………………… 11
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 14
2.1 Listening……………………………………………………………….. 14
2.1.1 Definition of Listening………………………………………………… 14
2.1.2 Listening in Language Learning………………………………………. 16
2.1.3 Nature of Listening……………………………………………………. 16
2.1.4 Factors Causing Difficulty in Listening Comprehension……………... 18
2.1.5 Listening Materials……………………………………………………. 19
2.1.6 Listening Strategies…………………………………………………… 21
2.2 Vocabulary……………………………………………………………... 23
2.2.1 Importance of Vocabulary…………………………………………….. 24
2.2.2 Knowing a Word………………………………………………………. 25
2.2.3 Dimensions of Vocabulary……………………………………………. 27
2.2.4 Communication of Word Meanings…………………………………. 29
2.2.5 EFL Students’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies……………………… 30
2.2.6 Approaches to Vocabulary Learning………………………………… 32
2.3 English Songs………………………………………………………… 33
2.3.1 English Songs and Language Instruction……………………………… 34
2.3.2 The Characteristics of English Songs…………………………………. 35
2.3.3 The Selection of Proper English Songs for Instruction……………….. 38
2.3.4 The Process of Teaching Songs……………………………………….. 40
2.4 Multimedia…………………………………………………………… 42
2.4.1 Theoretical Background of Multimedia Learning…………………….. 42
2.4.2 Use of Multimedia in Language Learning…………………………….. 44
2.4.3 Closed captions……………………………………………………….. 45
2.4.4 Advantages of Multimedia……………………………………………. 48
2.4.5 Disadvantages of Multimedia………………………………………… 49
2.4.6 Multimedia in Language Teaching……………………………………. 50
2.4.7 Multimedia and Listening &; Vocabulary…………………………….. 50
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY….. 52
3.1 Subjects………………………………………………………………... 52
3.2 Instruments……………………………………………………………. 53
3.2.1 The selected Teaching Materials……………………………………… 53
3.2.2 The Vocabulary Pre-test and Post-test.................................................... 54
3.2.3 The Listening Pre-test and Post-test…………………………………… 56
3.2.4 The Worksheet………………………………………………………… 57
3.2.5 The Pre-Study and Post-Study Questionnaires……………………….. 59
3.2.6 The Lesson Plan……………………………………………………….. 60
3.3 Pilot Study……………………………………………………………. 62
3.4 Study Procedures……………………………………………………… 62
3.5 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………. 63
3.5.1 Quantitative Analysis………………………………………………….. 63
3.5.2 Qualitative Analysis…………………………………………………… 64

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND
DISCUSSION…………

65
4.1 Results………………………………………………………………… 66
4.1.1 The Subjects’ Background and Grouping………………………….. 66
4.1.2 Results of Test-Retest Reliability……………………………………. 66
4.1.3 Results of Vocabulary Gain and Listening Improvement…………... 67
4.1.4 Results of Pearson Product Moment Correlation…………………… 69
4.1.5 Results of Independent-Samples T-test……………………………… 72
4.1.6 Results of Paired-Samples T-test……………………………………. 75
4.1.7 Results of One-Way ANCOVA……………………………………… 78
4.1.8 Relationship between Vocabulary Gain and Listening Improvement 81
4.1.9. Results from the Pre-Study and Post-Study Questionnaires………. 82
4.1.9.1 Results from Likert-Scale Items in the Pre-Study and Post-Study
Questionnaires…………………………………………………….. 83
4.1.9.2 Results from One-Sample T-test…………………………………… 95
4.1.9.3 Results from Open-Ended Questions in the Pre-Study and
Post-Study Questionnaires………………………………………… 96
4.2 Discussion………………………………………………………… 99
4.2.1
Effects of English Songs on YouTube and Short Stories on DVD on
Listening Comprehension…………………………………………
99
4.2.2
Effects of English Songs and Short Passages through Multimedia on
Vocabulary Acquisition………………………………………………
100
4.2.3

Effects of English Songs and Short Passages through Multimedia on
Listening Comprehension between High- and Low-Proficiency
Subjects………………………………………………………………

101
4.2.4
Effects of English Songs and Short Passages through Multimedia on
Vocabulary Acquisition between High- and Low-Proficiency Subjects
103
4.2.5 Relationships between Vocabulary Gain and Listening………………. 104
4.2.6
Effects of English Songs and Short Passages through Multimedia on
Subject Responses to English Learning Improvement……………….
105
4.3 Summary of Results and Discussion………………………………….
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS,
IMPLICATIONS, AND
SUGGESTIONS………. 106




109
5.1 Conclusions………………………………………………………….. 109
5.2 Implications………………………………………………………….. 111
5.3 Suggestions…………………………………………………………… 113
REFERENCES.................................................. 115
APPENDIX A-1 The Pre-Study Questionnaire (Chinese Version)…………... 135
APPENDIX A-2 The Pre-Study Questionnaire (English Version)………...… 138
APPENDIX B-1 The Post-Study Questionnaire (Chinese Version)...…..…...… 141
APPENDIX B-2 The Post-Study Questionnaire (English Version).................. 144
APPENDIX C The Script of the Episode Rock Climbing.............................. 148
APPENDIX D Worksheets for the Episodes and the English songs............... 149
APPENDIX E A Sample Lesson Plan.............................................................. 166
APPENDIX F The Vocabulary Pretest............................................................. 168
APPENDIX G The Vocabulary Post-test........................................................ 169
APPENDIX H The Listening Pretest/Post-test................................................. 170








LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 The episodes, the English songs and the target words……………… 56
Table 4.1 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for Vocabulary
Pretest and Post-test……………………………………………… 67
Table 4.2 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for Listening Pretest
and Post-test……………………………………………………… 67
Table 4.3 Means, and Standard Deviations for Vocabulary Pretest,
Vocabulary Post-test, and Vocabulary Gain for the Whole Group,
High Group, and Low Group……………………………………… 68
Table 4.4 Means, and Standard Deviations for Listening Pretest, Listening
Post-test, and Listening Improvement for the Whole Group, High
Group, and Low Group…………………………………………… 69
Table 4.5 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for Achievement
Test and Vocabulary Pretest for the High Group…………………… 70
Table 4.6 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for Achievement
Test and Listening Pretest for the High Group………………… 70
Table 4.7 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for Achievement…
Test and Vocabulary Pre-test for the Low Group..…..…..…..….….. 71
Table 4.8 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for
Achievement Test and Listening Pretest for the Low Group……. … 71
Table 4.9 Independent T-test for Relationships between High-and
Low-proficiency Subjects on Vocabulary Pretest…………………. 72
Table 4.10 Independent T-test for Relationships between High-and
Low-proficiency Subjects on Listening Pretest……………………. 73
Table 4.11 Independent T-test for Relationships between High-and
Low-proficiency Subjects on Vocabulary Post-test………………… 73
Table 4.12 Independent T-test for Relationships between High-and
Low-proficiency Subjects on Listening Post-test………………… 74
Table 4.13 Independent T-test for Relationships between High-and
Low-proficiency Subjects on Vocabulary Gain…………………… 74
Table 4.14 Independent T-test for Relationships between High-and
Low-proficiency Subjects on Listening Improvement…………… 75
Table 4.15 Paired-Samples T-test for differences between Vocabulary
Pretest (Form A) and Post-test……………………………………… 75
Table 4.16 Paired-Samples T-test for differences between Listening
Pretest (Form C) and Post-test (Form D)…………………………… 76
Table 4.17 Paired-Samples T-test for differences between Vocabulary
Pretest (Form A) and Post-test (Form B) for the High Group….…. 77
Table 4.18 Paired-Samples T-test for differences between Listening
Pretest (Form C) and Post-test (Form D) for the High Group……… 77
Table 4.19 Paired-Samples T-test for differences between Vocabulary
Pretest (Form A) and Post-test (Form B) for the Low Group…. …. 78
Table 4.20 Paired-Samples T-test for differences between Listening
Pretest (Form C) and Post-test (Form D) for the Low Group……… 78
Table 4.21 Descriptive Statistics of Vocabulary Gain between High- and
Low-proficiency Subjects Adjusting for Vocabulary Pretest Scores 79
Table 4.22 Analysis of Covariance Table for Relationships between
Proficiency Level and Vocabulary Gain Adjusting for Vocabulary
Pretest Scores……………………………………………………… 80
Table 4.23 Descriptive Statistics of Listening Improvement between
High- and Low- proficiency Subjects Adjusting for Listening
Pretest Scores……………………………………………………… 80
Table 4.24 Analysis of Covariance Table for Relationships between
Proficiency Level and Listening Improvement Adjusting for
Listening Pretest Scores………………………………………… 81
Table 4.25 Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for Vocabulary
Gain and Listening Improvement………………………………… 82
Table 4.26 Reliability Estimation for Items in the Pre-Study Questionnaire… 84
Table 4.27 Reliability Estimation for Items in the Post-Study Questionnaire… 84
Table 4.28 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to Listening the
Pre-study Questionnaire (Part II: 1-10)…………………………… 85
Table 4.29 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to Vocabulary
Learning in the Pre-study Questionnaire (Part III: 2, 4, Part IV: 4) 86
Table 4.30 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to English Songs in
the Pre-study Questionnaire (Part III: 1, 3, 5-9)…………………… 87
Table 4.31 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to English Short
Stories in the Pre-study Questionnaire (Part IV: 1- 3, 5-8)……… 88
Table 4.32 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to Listening in
the Post-study Questionnaire (Part II: 6, 8, Part III: 6)…………… 89
Table 4.33 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to Vocabulary
Learning in the Post-study Questionnaire (Part III: 2-5)………… 90
Table 4.34 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to English Songs in the
Post-study questionnaire (Part II: 1-5, 7, 9-12)…………………… 91
Table 4.35 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to English Short
Stories in the Post-study Questionnaire (Part III: 1, 7- 9)…… 92
Table 4.36 Descriptive Statistics of Subject Responses to Ways of Playing
DVDs in the Post-study Questionnaire (Part IV: 1-9)………... 93
Table 4.37 One-Sample T-Test for Subject Responses to the Six Scales In the
Post-study Questionnaire........................................... 96

































LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 The communication process………………………………… 30
Figure 3.1 The flow chart of the study procedure……………………… 63

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