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研究生:吳蕙娟
研究生(外文):Hui-chuan Wu
論文名稱:高雄市國小教師專業社群中共同學習及個人實務分享效益之研究
論文名稱(外文):THE EFFECTS ON TEACHERS’ COLLECTIVE LEARNING AND SHARED PERSONAL PRACTICE IN PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITIES IN KAOHSIUNG ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS
指導教授:李翠玉李翠玉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Tsui-yu Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:共同學習高雄市國小教師個人實務分享教師專業學習社群
外文關鍵詞:Collective LearningKaohsiung Elementary School TeachersShared Personal PracticeTeacher Professional Learning Communities
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本研究旨在瞭解高雄市國小教師專業社群中共同學習及個人實務分享的效益,包括教師專業社群實施現況,教師對於促進社群的回饋以及教師參與社群所遭遇的困難,根據教師的回應,討論高雄市國小教師專業社群中共同學習及個人實務分享的效益。
本研究以高雄市國小參加教師專業評鑑中的教師專業社群成員為研究對象,共計336人。本研究採用問卷調查法及半結構式訪談法,共發放336份問卷,回收298份,回收率為88%,有效問卷為248份,有效問卷率為74%。依問卷結果,將社群得分分為高中低組,並由高分組中隨機抽取四位社群召集人,中分組中隨機抽取三位召集人,低分組中隨機抽取三位召集人,共計訪談十位社群召集人,以瞭解其對於促進社群運作的回饋以及社群運作時所遭遇的困難。問卷量化資料以描述性統計進行分析;透過錄音方式蒐集訪談資料,研究者針對訪談者回答內容進行分析。歸納研究發現,本研究結論如下:
一、 由問卷結果得知,高雄市國小教師專業社群在共同學習層面平均得分為3.08分,得分情形屬於中等程度。該層面中以「社群成員尊重不同意見,達到持續探究、學習的目的」題目得分最高;得分最低的題目為「社群成員能共同學習新知識、新技能或新策略,並將所學應用於教學上」。
二、 由訪談結果得知在共同學習層面,高分組社群設計教案並尋求外部資源以利社群學習;中分組社群並沒有教案設計,但中分組社群也會尋求外部資源促進學習;低分組社群並無尋求外部資源。
三、 由問卷結果得知,高雄市國小教師專業社群在個人實務分享層面平均得分為2.92分,得分情形屬於中等程度。該層面中以「社群成員能針對教學實務,提供同儕回饋」題目得分最高;得分最低的題目為「社群成員能共同檢視學生作品,以達到教學分享及精進教學的目標」。
四、 由訪談結果得知在個人實務分享層面,高分組社群進行教學觀察,應用所學,分享經驗,並修改教案;中分組社群並沒有進行教學觀察,但社群成員會分享實作時的經驗並互相給予回饋;低分組社群中有一位教師進行教學觀察,但其餘學習應用部分則較少見。
五、 增加社群經費、教師對於社群活動的熱忱與付出、明確的社群分工與合作、增加經驗分享與回饋的機會是研究對象於問卷中表示可促進社群運作因素的前四名;另外訪談結果顯示可促進社群運作因素為明確及公平的分工、社群時間安排於週三下午進修時間、與學校其他計畫結合、教師自主性成立社群、成員共同決定學習主題、學習主題應與教學相關並可實際運用於教學現場、尋求教育局或學校行政協助邀請講座事宜、社群人數不宜過多、舉辦社群成果分享、將校外研習資源帶回社群分享、即時回收社群回饋資料以減輕社群成果彙編壓力、社群中至少有一人有行政經驗、教師對於學習有熱忱等。
六、 問卷資料分析顯示教師在社群運作中所遭遇的困難中的前三名為:缺乏共同時間、經費不足、社群時間與其他研習時間或會議相衝突;訪談結果顯示社群運作的困境為:共同研討時間不足、經費有限、由於教學領域或專長不同,甚至學習主題與教學不相關等緣故,社群成員無法將社群所學馬上應用於教學上、講座邀約、成果報告壓力、社群人數過多、社群成員參與意願不高。

依據以上研究結果,茲提供以下建議:
一、 國小教師可參加教師專業社群以增進教師學習及學生學習成效。
二、 國小教師專業社群正式運作之前,可提供社群成員相關訓練課程,以讓社群成員瞭解社群目標不只在於教師學習,也在促進學生學習。
三、 國小學校行政可於周三進修安排社群研討時間,或協助社群成員安排共同空堂,以利社群有足夠的共同時間進行研討。
四、 國小學校行政可協助整合學校所有計畫,提供教師參考並決定社群學習主題,以提供社群更多資源,同時也可解決社群經費不足的困難。此外,校外資源如家長、社區圖書館、樂齡大學等,社群也可善用成為其資源。
五、 教育相關當局成立教育專家人力資源庫,以解決社群講座邀約之困難。

This study aimed to investigate the outcome of collective learning and shared personal practice in professional learning communities in Kaohsiung elementary schools. In addition, possible factors to foster professional learning communities and the difficulties teachers encountered were also discussed. Based on the subjects’ responses, the effects were discussed.
The subjects of this study were 336 teachers from 28 professional learning communities in Kaohsiung elementary schools. These schools participated in Teacher Evaluation for Professional Development. Questionnaires and semi-structural interviews were employed. 336 copies of questionnaires were issued. 298 copies from 26 professional learning communities were returned. Among the returned questionnaires, 248 copies were valid. Based on the scores of the questionnaires, 26 professional learning communities were separated into three different groups, high, medium, and low. Four teacher leaders were randomly chosen from the groups with high scores. Respectively, three teacher leaders were randomly selected from groups with medium and low scores. Ten teacher leaders were interviewed in order to understand their feedback and difficulties while learning in the professional learning communities. Descriptive statistics were utilized for the qualitative data. Data from interviews were also recorded and analyzed. The findings of the study are as follows.
1. Based on the questionnaire results, the average score for collective learning of the subjects is 3.08, which indicated at a medium level. Subjects scored the most on the item: “Staff members engage in dialogue that reflects a respect for diverse ideas that lead to continued inquiry. Whereas, they scored the least on the item: “ Staff members work together to seek knowledge, skills and strategies and apply this new learning to their work.”
2. From the interview results, PLCs with high scores produced lesson plans and found exterior resources to facilitate their learning. PLCs with medium scores did not work on lesson plans. However, they looked for resources outside school as well. PLCs with low scores did not look for exterior resources to help them learn.
3. Based on the questionnaire results, the mean for shared personal practice of the subjects is 2.92, which showed at a medium level. The item: “Staff members provide feedback to peers related to instructional practices.” scored the most. “Staff members collaboratively review student work to share and improve instructional practices.” scored the least.
4. From the interview results, PLCs with high scores conducted teaching observation. In other words, they applied what they learned, shared their experience, and revised the lesson plans. PLCs with medium scores did not conduct teaching observation. They shared what they applied and provided feedback to one another. Among PLCs with low scores, the application of learning is rarely seen. Only one teacher conducted teaching observation.
5. Based on the results of the questionnaires, budget increase, teachers’ commitment and devotion, explicit job distribution and cooperation, more opportunities for experience sharing and feedback are the four top responses of the possible factors that foster professional learning communities. Interview results indicated that fair job allocation, schools’ proper arrangement for professional learning community meetings on Wednesday afternoons, combination with school projects or programs, teachers’ spontaneous establishment of the professional learning communities, collective decision on the learning topics, learning topics relating to instruction and authentic application, seeking helpful from the Bureau of education or school administrators for expert talk invitations, limited number for the members, outcome sharing, learning from speeches or seminars outside schools and share with members, at least recruiting one member with administrative experiences, and passionate teachers who enjoy learning are the possible factors to foster professional learning communities.
6. The results of the questionnaires indicated the first top three difficulties are the lack of collective time, insufficient grants, and confliction of PLC meetings with other meetings, talks, or workshops. Interview results indicated that the difficulties are insufficient collective learning time, insufficient budget, not all members can use learning in teaching due to the various specialties and teaching fields of the subjects or what they learned was not related to teaching, the invitation of the experts to give talks, final report, large size of the professional learning communities, and the reluctance of the members are the major difficulties from the interviewees’ viewpoints.
Based on the results of the findings, some implications are suggested.
A. Elementary school teachers can participate in professional learning communities to enhance teacher learning and student learning.
B. Before the formal implementation of the professional learning communities, related training sessions or orientation can be provided in order to have members understand the mission and goals of professional learning communities are in teacher learning and student learning as well.
C. School administrators can arrange meetings for professional learning communities on Wednesday afternoons for elementary school teachers. The administrators can also assist teachers to arrange collective periods without teaching for members to have sufficient time to learn together.
D. School administrators can integrate school programs or projects to provide teachers with the choices of learning topics for the professional learning communities in order to obtain more resources and resolve the difficulty of insufficient funding. In addition, community resources, such as parents, community libraries, and senior universities can also be introduced to the community members in order to cooperate with the human resources.
E. Related educational authorities can consider establishing human resource database for educational experts in order to solve the problems on expert invitation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ABSTRACT i
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………… 1
Background and Motivation…………………………………………. 1
Purposes of the Study……………………………………………….. 5
Research Questions………………………………………………..... 5
Significance of the Study…………………………………………….. 6
Limitations of the Study……………………………………………... 6
Definitions of Terms……………………………………………….... 7
Organization of the Study………………………………………….... 8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…………………... 9
The Rationale for Professional Learning Communities………………... 9
Definitions of PLC……………………………………………….... 9

Dimensions and Characteristics of Professional Learning
Communities………………………………………………………………..
11
Benefits of Professional Learning Communities………………………....... 14
Teacher Collaborative Inquiry Approach…………………………….. 16
Collective Learning……………………………………………….. 16
Shared Personal Practice…………………………………………... 18
Fullan’s Phases of School Changes and Development of PLCs…………... 20
Previous Studies in Taiwan Elementary Schools…………………………... 22

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY…………………….. 25
Subjects ………………………………………………………….... 25
Demographic and Background Variables of the Subjects………………….. 26
Background Information of the Interviewees……………………………… 28
Instruments………………………………………………………………….. 29
Professional Learning Community Questionnaire…………………....... 29
Professional Learning Community Interview Questions…………………... 34
Procedures………………………………………………………….. 35
Data Analyses………………………………………………………. 37
A Quantitative Analysis…………………………………………………….. 37
A Qualitative Analysis……………………………………………………… 38


CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………..... 39
Background Variables of Kaohsiung Elementary School PLCs………….. 39
The Outcome of Professional Learning Communities in Collective Learning in Kaohsiung Elementary Schools……………………………….
42
The Outcome Professional Learning Communities in Shared Personal Practice in Kaohsiung Elementary Schools………………………………...
47
The Possible Factors that Foster Professional learning Communities in Elementary Schools in Kaohsiung from Teachers’ Perspectives………….
52
The Difficulties That Teachers Encounter in the Professional Learning Communities in Elementary Schools in Kaohsiung………………………..
66

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION………….. ………….. ………….. 75
Research Findings………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. ………… 73
Implications………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. ……………….. 77
Suggestions………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. ………………… 80
REFFERENCES………….. ………….. …………………….. ………………. 82
APPENDIXES………….. ………….. ………….. ………….. ……………….. 89
Appendix A-1: Professional Learning Communities Questionnaire
(Mandarin Version) …………..…….……..…..……………. ………………..
89
Appendix A-2:Professional Learning Communities Questionnaire…..……… 92
Appendix A-3: Interview Questions (Mandarin Version) …..………………... 96
Appendix A-4: Interview Questions…...…………..…………..……………... 97
Appendix B-1: The Reliability Analysis of the Questionnaire..…………..….. 98
Appendix B-2: The Outcome of KMO and Barrlett’s Test of the Pilot Study... 101

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