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研究生:章世然
論文名稱:澎湖文化任務導向英語教學對九年級學生英文寫作表現及文化察覺之效益研究
指導教授:張玉玲張玉玲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:任務導向教學合作學習文化覺察文化導向教學英文寫作表現本土化
外文關鍵詞:Task-based InstructionCooperative LearningCultural AwarenessCultural InstructionWriting PerformanceLocalization
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論文名稱:澎湖文化任務導向英語教學對九年級學生英文寫作表現及文化察覺之效益研究
校所組別:國立高雄師範大學 暑期英語教學碩士班
畢業時間:一百零二學年度第二學期
指導教授:張玉玲 博士
研 究 生:章世然

論文摘要:
本文旨在探討澎湖文化任務導向英語教學對九年級學生寫作表現之效益研究。本研究以一個班共27位國中九年級學生為研究對象,在十二週的課程中,學生學習澎湖文化任務導向英語寫作。包括針對澎湖地區文化或觀光景點資料的蒐集、整理、英文寫作、課堂呈現。在資料分析方面,本研究針對學生英語寫作能力測驗結果及問卷回應,採用成對樣本t考驗與描述性統計等量化統計,並針對後測問卷中的開放式問題進行質化分析。
本研究主要發現如下:
一、 在澎湖文化任務導向英語教學課程後,學生的寫作能力有顯著差異。根據後測增加之平均分數可知,澎湖文化任務導向英語教學課程可以有效提升學生的英文寫作能力。
二、 在澎湖文化任務導向英語教學課程後,學生對於英語寫作方面的反應上有顯著的差異。根據後測增加之平均分數可知,學生對於英文寫作有正面積極的回應。學生的學習興趣、自信、和認知明顯提升。此外,學生對於英語寫作的學習動機與其重要性之認知亦有顯著提升。
三、 在澎湖文化任務導向英語教學課程後,學生對於澎湖本土文化察覺有顯著提升。根據後測增加之平均分數可知,學生對於澎湖本土文化的察覺,更加深入,更有信心以適當的英文向外國人介紹澎湖本土文化。
四、 在澎湖文化任務導向英語教學課程後,學生對於任務導向學習策略認知有顯著提升。根據後測增加之平均分數判斷,學生更深入了解任務導向學習策略,而且他們認為任務導向學習策略對其英文學習有幫助。

五、 在澎湖文化任務導向英語教學課程後,學生認為合作學習對於英文學習有幫助。學生認為分組合作學習讓他們更能投入小組討論與學習,強化學習動力。
六、 在澎湖文化任務導向英語教學課程後,學生表示他們在課程中的收穫包含了:(一)增進英文寫作能力,及(二)深入了解澎湖地方文化。另外,學生在課程中遭遇的困難則有:(一)英文單字、文法認知不足,及(二)對於段落寫作結構不熟悉。至於建議部分,學生提出了三項建議:(一)提供更大範圍文化資料以供學生認識、學習更多不同文化;(二)降低英文寫作難度要求;及(三)提供更多英語學習時間以利更充分完成指定作業。
根據本研究結果,研究者提出三項建議。首先,國中英語教師可將本土文化適當融入強調內容學習的英語教學課程,並鼓勵學生對所選定之文化內容編製手冊,據以提升學生學習英文興趣,增進英語學習效果。其次,透過以學生為中心、貼近學生生活經驗、目標明確的任務導向英語教學,學生不僅習得英文能力,亦養成問題解決能力,符合當前國民教育基本精神。此外,強調地方文化內容的英語教學課程,透過明確教學內容、計畫、目標,及多元評量方式,例如:小組作業、課堂發表、及個人回應,建立更有效英語學習環境,協助學生達成課程內容導向之學習目標。

ABSRTACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the Penghu culture task-based instruction (PCTI) program on English writing performance and cultural awareness for ninth graders in Penghu Islands. To achieve the purpose, 27 ninth graders from one class in a junior high school were recruited in this study. In the PCTI, the students learned English writing about Penghu culture with task-based instruction and cooperative learning strategies for 12 weeks. The data collected from the students’ two English writing tests, and their responses to the pre-study questionnaire as well as the post-study questionnaire were analyzed quantitatively by a paired samples t-test and descriptive statistics. Four open-ended questions in the post-study questionnaire were analyzed qualitatively.
The major findings were summarized as follows.
1. There is a significant difference in the students’ English writing ability before and after the PCTI. In addition, the mean score of the post-test is higher than that if the post-test, indicating that with the application of the PCTI, the students’ English writing performance was improved.
2. There are 11 significant differences in the student responses to the English writing performance before and after the PCTI. In addition, the increased mean scores show that the students cultivated positive responses to English writing through the PCTI. Specifically, the students’ strong sense of achievement inspired them to be in favor of English writing. Because they were familiar with the materials of the local culture, they liked English writing better after the PCTI.

3. In terms of the student responses to the cultural awareness, students did develop the awareness of the Penghu local culture and form their English writing ability in the groups. Specifically, they wrote and drew about endangered species, such as green turtles and the renowned Double-hearted Stone Tidal Weir. It revealed that the introduction to the local culture of Penghu was a valuable motive for students to learn English.
4. A social and meaningful content facilitates language acquisition. When students were exposed with vocabulary in the language class, they gradually acquired it. Furthermore, the activities in the class would draw students’ attention and focus and then, in the process of taking part in the activities, help students to achieve the goal of language learning. Besides, the task in the task-based instruction should be authentic, learner-centered, intentional, and interactive. It provides a context that activates learning processes and promotes language learning.
5. When students had partners to discuss the assigned work, to ask for help, and to share their feeling, they tended to finish the group tasks eagerly and delightfully. In an environment of cooperative learning, the students developed positive feelings about learning and well identified themselves. Specifically, the students’ contributions to cooperation resulted in a positive learning environment and facilitated their learning of English writing.
6. Students expressed their gains, difficulties, and suggestions for the PCTI respectively. Specifically, the students’ gains include (a) improving their English writing abilities through the tasks in the PCTI, and (b) increasing the knowledge about the local culture of Penghu. In addition, the students had difficulties in (a) English vocabulary, grammar, and (b) the organization of

paragraphs. As for the suggestions for the PCTI, the students made the hope that the teacher could offer them other materials about cultures of other countries, try to give easy English writing tasks, and distribute more time to do individual English writing instead of to many group activities.
On the basis of study findings, three implications were proposed. First, EFL teachers in Taiwan can integrate the culture-based topics in English writing instruction. They can highlight content area teaching and encourage students to survey as well as to compose pamphlets on selected local cultures. Second, students can benefit from task-based instruction because it is learner-centered, authentic to life experience, and evident in goals. In the task-based instruction, students can not only learn English but also develop the ability of problem solving, which is the goal of the current education. Third, it is hoped that course designers can integrate local culture subjects into English writing instruction. They can set concrete teaching goals, content, materials, schedules as well as assessment methods for the cultural-oriented curriculum. Specifically, the evaluation can be multiple assessments, including group tasks, presentation, and individual responses. Accordingly, learner-friendly and effective English learning environment in new course design can be built.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Motivation 1
Purposes of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 6
Limitations of the Study 6
Definition of Terms 7

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 9
English Writing Performance for EFL Learners 9
Writing Processes 9
Writing Problems of EFL Learners 11
Writing Instruction for EFL Learners 14
Task-based Instruction 15
The Importance of Task-based Instruction 16
The Features of Task-based Instruction 17
Cooperative Learning in task-based Instruction 19
Cultural Instruction 21
Cultural Awareness 22
Features of Cultural Localization 23
Localization in Cultural Instruction 24


CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 26
Subjects 26
Instruments 27
The English Writing Pretest and Post-test 27
Worksheets 28
The Pre-study Questionnaire on the Student Responses to 28
English Writing
A Post-study Questionnaire on the Student Responses to 29
English Writing
Procedure 31
Data Analysis 32
A Quantitative Analysis 32
A Qualitative Analysis 32

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 33
Comparison of the Students’ English Writing Ability Before 33
and After the PCTI
Comparison of the Student Responses to English Writing Before 34
and After the PCTI
Comparison of the Student Responses to Culture Learning Before 37
and After the PCTI
The Student Responses to Task-based Instruction in the PCTI 46
The Student Responses to Cooperative Learning in the PCTI 49


The Students’ Gains and Difficulties in the PCTI 52
The Students’ Gains in the PCTI 52
The Students’ Difficulties in the PCTI 55
The Students’ Suggestions in the PCTI 57

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, 60
AND SUGGESTIONS
Conclusions 60
Implications 62
Suggestions 63

REFERENCES 65

APPENDIXES 77
Appendix A: The English Writing Pretest 77
Appendix B-1: The Pre-study Questionnaire on the Student 79
Responses to English Writing
Appendix B-2: The Post-study Questionnaire on the Student 81
Responses to English Writing
Appendix C-1: Handout 1: Mazu Temple 84
Appendix C-2: Handout 2: The Double Heart Stone Tidal Weirs 85
Appendix C-3: Handout 3: Black Sugar Cake 86
Appendix D-1: English Works of Group One 87
Appendix D-2: English Works of Group Two 91
Appendix D-3: English Works of Group Three 96
Appendix D-4: English Works of Group Four 101
Appendix D-5: English Works of Group Five 104
Appendix D-6: English Works of Group Six 109
Appendix E-1: Reliability of the Pre-study Questionnaire 114
Appendix F-1: Reliability of the Post-study Questionnaire 115



















LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
Table
1. . Comparison of the Students’ English Writing Performance Before and
After the PCTI 34
2. . Comparison of the Student Responses to English Writing Before and
After the PCTI 35
3. . Comparison of the Student Responses to Culture Learning Before and
After the PCTI 38
4. . The Student Responses to Task-based Instruction After the PCTI 47
5. . The Student Responses to Cooperative Learning After the PCTI 50
6. . The Students’ Gains in the PCTI 53
7. . The Students’ Difficulties in the PCTI 56
8. . The Students’ Suggestions for the PCTI 58

Figure
1. . A Flow Chart of the Study Procedures 30
2. . Two Samples of the Introduction to the Symbols of Penghu by Students 2
and 5 of Group One 41
3. . Two Samples of the Introduction to the Animal Species of Penghu by
Students 7 and 9 of Group Two 41
4. . Two Samples of the Introduction to the Natural Scenery of Penghu by
Students 11 and 14 of Group Three 42
5. . Two Samples of the Introduction to the Ancient Buildings of Penghu by Students 16 and 19 of Group Four
42
6. . Two Samples of the Introduction to the Artificial Structures of Penghu by Students 22 and 23 of Group Five 43
7. . Two Samples of the Introduction to the Plant Species of Penghu by
Students 29 and 30 of Group Six 43

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