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研究生:林美霞
研究生(外文):Sasinan Kruaechaipinit
論文名稱:美國對緬甸之經濟制裁1996-2012年
論文名稱(外文):The U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Myanmar from 1996-2012
指導教授:林文程林文程引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-cheng Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:中國與亞太區域研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:416
中文關鍵詞:美緬關係經濟制裁翁山蘇姬緬甸民族和解經濟發展
外文關鍵詞:Aung San Suu Kyieconomic sanctionsthe United States-Myanmar relationMyanmar’s national reconcilieconomic development
相關次數:
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經濟制裁普遍被視為可行的外交手段,由常見的外交政策中發現,在不採取可能產生危險和衝突的軍事行動或權力行使之下,經濟制裁能夠有效地影響他者。再者,通常都是由先進國家來衡量經濟制裁的效果,例如:在目標政體之中,經濟制裁如何發揮改變政策的功能?在目標國之中,又如何能在不傷及像是關稅和配額的貿易保護政策之下而產生經濟的變化?通常目標國家的經濟和社會苦難等議題是可以被忽略不計的,尤其是從先進國家的觀點來看。這似乎是一體兩面的議題,目標國家認為經濟制裁是一種操弄政治邪惡面的最糟手段,發起國則是從中得到政治利益。
  美國自1997年就向緬甸施以經濟制裁,但預期中的結果並沒有實現。為防止緬甸政府對其公民有衝突等事件發生,有許多的政治家像是翁山蘇姬就在家中軟禁多年。在緬甸經濟制裁似乎是很大程度的失敗,有許多明顯的因素皆證實了這件事情:一、直至2010年之前,皆是軍政府執政,而並非現行的民主體制;二、緬甸歷經了長期的經濟停滯期:孤立26年的“社會經濟”和22年“計劃經濟”(自1962年開始)。許多學者表示要經濟起飛、經濟成長和加深工業化,基礎設施和擁有社會政治條件都存有其重要性,而這些全都基於緬甸本身的內部因素:政治穩定度、少數民族的緊張關係、市場開放、匯率改革、技術性勞動力,還有發展緬甸的基礎設施。
  依我的觀點而言,外部因素則是國際性的經濟制裁是民族和解的障礙,像是在美國對緬甸施以經濟制裁的例子中,即可以明顯地發現並未成功。這無疑是美國以直接和間接的方式對緬甸經濟制裁,而或多或少影響其經濟發展、政治和社會的例子。在這篇論文中,這項以美國對緬甸的經濟制裁案例,將會著重於這些直接和間接因素的分析,並更清楚的將分析聚焦於被假定的直接因素。
Economic sanctions are generally seen as a viable foreign policy option. Such policies find that sanctions can positively influence others without taking military actions or using power that could increase dangerous and costly conflict. Furthermore, the effectiveness of economic sanctions tends to be measured by the imposing country. For example, how are economic sanctions able to produce policy changes in the target polity? How is the efficacy of economic sanctions able to produce economic change in the target country without damaging protectionist trade policies such as tariff and quotas? Typically, economic and social suffering of the target country can be neglected issues, especially from the perspective of the imposing country. It seems that in a worst case scenario economic sanctions can stand as a political evil from the perspective of the targeted country, while the sending country may find it to be a political good.
The United States imposed economic sanctions on Myanmar since 1990. During these sanctions the desired results were not produced. Many politicians including Daw Aung San Suu Kyi were placed under house arrest for several years, furthering political conflict and reaction by the Myanmar government against its citizens. Economic sanctions seem to have largely failed to bring about positive political changes in Myanmar. This is evidenced by several factors. First, the country had military rather than democratic ruling until late of year 2010. Second, Myanmar has experienced a long term of economic stagnation – 26 years of an isolated “social economy” and 22 years of “command economy” (since 1962). Many scholars have revealed that the importance of initial material and socio-political conditions for economic take-off, growth and further industrialization. These conditions have depended on Myanmar’s internal factors such as a stable Myanmar’s political environment, an ongoing ethnic minority’s tension, the open market, the exchange rate reform, the prompt of skilled labor, and the development of infrastructure within Myanmar.
It is my view that external factors such as international economic sanctions can be an obstacle to national reconciliation, and in the case of U.S. economic sanctions against Myanmar, those sanctions have largely not been successful. It is surely the case that the U.S. economic sanctions would affect Myanmar’s economic development, politics, and society more or less in both direct and indirect ways. In this thesis, an analysis of the case of U.S. economic sanctions against Myanmar will be examined in light of these direct and indirect factors making explicit the indirect factors and bring into clearer focus those factors presumed as direct.
Table of contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
摘要
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
ABBREVIATIONS
CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 RESEARCH BACKGROUND 1
1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM AND PURPOSE 25
1.3 MODEL OF THIS STUDY 29
1.4 SOURCES AND MATERIALS 33
1.5 METHOD, STRUCTURE AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS RESEARCH 34
1.6 RESEARCH PROCEDURE 37
1.7 CHAPTER OUTLINES 39
CHAPTER TWO THE THEORIES OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS 41
2.1 ECONOMIC SANCTIONS 41
2.1.1 History of Economic Sanctions 41
2.1.2 What are Economic Sanctions? 53
2.1.3 Purposes of Economic Sanctions 74
2.1.4 Ethical Dilemma 78
2.2 ECONOMIC SANCTIONS - THEORETIC CONSIDERATIONS 81
2.2.1 U.S. Economic sanctions against South Africa 83
2.2.2 U.S. Economic sanctions against North Korea 94
2.2.3 U.S. Economic sanctions against China 105
2.3 THE CONCEPT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 113
2.4 DEVELOPING HYPOTHESES 116
CHAPTER THREE THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF U.S.-MYANMAR BILATTERAL RELATIONS 123
3.1 THE BEGINNING OF POLITICAL ECONOMY OF U.S.-MYANMAR RELATIONS FROM 1948-1988 124
3.2 U.S.-MYANMAR RELATIONS BETWEEN 1988 AND 2008 127
3.3 U.S. – MYANMAR RELATIONS SINCE 2009 146
3.4 UNDERSTANDING THE UNITED STATES-MYANMAR RELATIONS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONSTRUCTIVISM 149
3.4.1 Concept of Constructivism 150
CHAPTER FOUR U.S. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND MYANMAR 171
4.1 BACKGROUND OF U.S. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST MYANMAR 171
4.2 WHY U.S. IMPOSED ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST MYANMAR? 173
4.3 HOW WERE U.S. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS IMPLEMENTED? 181
4.4.1 Visa ban 187
4.4.2 Restrictions on Financial Services 188
4.4.3 Frozen Assets 190
4.4.4 General Import Ban 191
4.4.5 Investment Ban 192
4.4.6 Bilateral and Multilateral Assistance Ban 194
4.5 INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES TO ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST MYANMAR 202
4.5.1 Countries/organizations cooperate with U.S. to impose economic sanctions against Myanmar 202
4.5.2 Countries/organizations oppose U.S. economic sanctions against Myanmar 212
CHAPTER FIVE THE IMPACT OF U.S. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AGAINST MYANMAR 230
5.1 IMPACT ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 232
5.1.1 Macroeconomic performance 234
5.1.2 Impact of U.S. economic sanctions on Myanmar’s agricultural and industrial sectors 238
5.1.3 Impact of U.S. economic sanctions on the supportive sectors of Myanmar’s economic development 280
5.2 IMPACT ON POLITICS 311
5.2.1 Impact on factionalized elites 311
5.2.2 Impact on state legitimacy 315
5.2.3 Impact on security apparatus 321
5.2.4 Impact on public service 323
5.2.5 Impact on human rights and rule of law 328
5.3 IMPACT ON SOCIETY 334
5.3.1 Impact on internal violent and immigration of refugees (indirect) 334
5.3.2 Impact on human flight and brain drain (direct) 342
5.3.3 Impact on access to international knowledge 348
5.4 THE MYANMAR MILITARY GOVERNMENT’S REACTION TO U.S. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS 357
5.4.1 Myanmar military government’s structure 358
5.4.2 Myanmar military government’s attitude 360
CHAPTER SIX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 362
BIBLIOGRAPHY 377
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Steinberg, I. David, 2014/05/07. “The Problem with H.R. 4377, the Burma Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2014.” CogitASIA, <http://cogitasia.com/the-problem-with-h-r-4377-the-burma-human-rights-and-democracy-act-of-2014>.
Stevenson, Matthew, 2012/01/09. “Travel Bans.” Newgeography, <http://www.newgeography.com/content/003046-travel-bans-do-no-go-lists-fight-freedom>.
Tanabe, Kimie, 1998/Fall. “TED Case Studies: Economic Sanctions vs FDI: Policy Determinations for Burma.” TED, <http://www1.american.edu/ted/burma.htm>.
Teaching With Documents: The United States Enters the Korean Conflict, 2014/03/20 (accessed). National Archives, <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/korean-conflict>.
Thabchumpon et al., 2012. “Development, Democracy, and Human Security in Myanmar: A Case Study of the Dawei Special Economic Zone.” ICIRD Knowledge Network, <http://www.icird.org/2012/files/papers/Naruemon Thabchumpon, Carl Middleton and Zaw Aung2.pdf>.
The Burma (Freezing of Funds) Regulations 2000, 2000/06/13. “Criminal Law, England and Wales Criminal Law, Northern Ireland Criminal, Scotland.” Statutory Instruments, No. 1472, <http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130129110402/http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/si_1472_burma_freezing_of_funds_regulations_2000_070600.pdf>.
The Coca-Cola Company, 2013/06/04. “Coca-Cola Starts Local Production in Myanmar.” Coca-Cola Company, <http://www.coca-colacompany.com/press-center/press-releases /coca-cola-starts-local-production-in-myanmar>.
The Monks Join the Protests, 2007. Human rights watch, <http://www.hrw.org/reports/2007/burma1207/7.htm>
Thiha, 2014/02/17. “U.S. Firm APR Energy Clinches Myanmar Power Contract.” Consult Myanmar, <http://consult-myanmar.com/2014/02/17/us-firm-apr-energy-clinches-myanmar-power-contract>.
Xinhua, 2006/10/15. “Myanmar foreign investment in 2005-06 registers highest in 18 years.” PROBE international, <http://journal.probeinternational.org/2006/10/15/myanmar- foreign-investment-2005-06-registers-highest-18-years>.
Wacker, Gudun, 2005/02. “Lifting the EU arms embargo against China. U.S. and EU positions.” Working paper, FG 7, Research Unit Asia, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, German Institute for International and Security Affairs, <http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/arbeitspapiere/2005_02Wkr_eu_embargo_ks.pdf>.
Wallensteen, Peter, 2000. “A Century of Economic Sanctions: A Fireld Revisited.” Uppasala Peach Research Papers, No.1. Department of Peace and Conflict Reseach, Uppsala University, Sweden, <http://www.uu.se/digitalAssets/18/18601_UPRP_No_1.pdf>.
Watkins, Ed, 2013/06/20. “The Myanmar hotel boom.” HotelNewsNow, <http://www.hotelnewsnow.com/Article/10717/The-Myanmar-hotel-boom>.
Win, Lei Thin, 2012/07/24. “Myanmar in the dark over hydropower for Asia.” Thomson Reuters Foundation, <http://www.trust.org/item/?map=myanmar-in-the-dark-over-hydropower-for-asia>.
World Wondering, 2011/07/10. “Preview: Shwedagon Pagoda.” World Wondering, <http://www.nevworldwonders.com/2011/07/preview-shwedagon-pagoda.html>.
WSJ, 2011/05/16. “Myanmar lifts ban on rice exports, prices expected to fall.” Myanmar Business Network, <http://www.myanmar-business.org/2011/05/myanmar-lifts-
ban-on-rice-exports.html>.

Official documents
113th Congress, 2013–2015, 2014/04/02. “H.R. 4377: Burma Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2014.” GovTrack, <https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/113/hr4377/text>.
ADB, 2012/11/05. “ADB, Norway to Help Update Myanmar Electricity Law.” ADB, <http://www.adb.org/news/adb-norway-help-update-myanmar-electricity-law>.
ADB, 2013/09/30. “Myanmar Plans Electricity Expansion with Assistance from ADB, Japan.” ADB, <http://www.adb.org/news/myanmar-plans-electricity-expansion-assistance-adb-japan>.
Anonymous, 2013/05/21. “Trade and Investment Framework Agreement between the government of the United States of America and the government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.” Office of the United States Trade Representative, <http://www.ustr. gov/sites/default/files/05212013 US BURMA TIFA_0.pdf >.
ASEAN investment report 2007, 2014/06/04 (accessed). ASEAN, <http://www.asean.org/archive/21406.pdf>.
ASEAN Secretariat, 2006. “Statistics of foreign direct investment in ASEAN.” ASEAN, <http://www.asean.org/archive/5187-6.pdf>.
Central Statistic Organization, 2014/06/01 (accessed). “Sown acreage, harvested acreage and production of selected crops.” Central Statistic Organization, <http://www.myanmar.cm/myanmardata2007/s0505.htm>.
Council Decision 2013/184/CFSP of 22 April 2013, 2013/04/23. “Concerning restrictive measures against Myanmar/Burma and repealing Decision 2010/232/CFSP.” Official Journal of the European Union, L111/75, <http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:111:0075:0076:EN:PDF>.
Department of the Treasury, 2005. “31 CFR Part 537 Burmese Sanctions Regulations; Interim Final Rule.” Federal Register, Vol. 70, No. 157, pp. 48240-48254.
Embargoes and sanctions on Burma, 2012/08/13. “Information on embargoes on Burma and how to apply for an export license.” Department for Business, Innovation &; Skills and Foreign &; Commonwealth Office, Government of UK, <https://www.gov.uk/arms-embargo-on-burma>.
European Commission, 2013/11/07. “European Union, Trade in goods with Myanmar.” European Union, <http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tradoc_
113423.pdf>.
European Union, 2014/04/26 (accessed). “Myanmar (Burma).” European Union, <http://eeas.europa.eu/myanmar/index_en.htm>.
European Union, Trade in Goods with Myanmar, 2013. European Commission,
<http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2006/september/tradoc_113423.pdf>.
Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, 2014/04/26. “Bilateral relations between Switzerland and Myanmar.” Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, <http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/asia/vmmr/bilmya.html>.
H.R.4377 - Burma Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2014, 2014/04/02. “H.R.4377 - Burma Human Rights and Democracy Act of 2014: 113th Congress (2013-2014).” Congress.gov, <http://beta.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/house-bill/4377>.
IMF, 1999. “Myanmar: Recent Economic Developments.” IMF Staff Country Report, No. 99/134, <http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/1999/cr99134.pdf>.
International Monetary Fund, 2012. Myanmar set for economic takeoff with right policies. <http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2012/CAR050712A.htm>.
Larry, A. Niksch and Martin, A. Weiss, 2009. “Burma: Economic Sanctions,” CRS Report for Congress, No. RS22737, pp.1-9.
McMahon, Robert, 2006/11/17. “UN Sanctions: A Mixed Record.” Council of Foreign Relations, <http://www.cfr.org/international-organizations-and-alliances/un-sanctions-mixed-record/p12045>.
Martin, F. Michael, 2012. “U.S. Sanctions on Burma,” CRS Report for Congress, No. R41336, pp.1-47.
National Archives and Records Administration, 2013/08/09. “Executive Order 13651 of August 6, 2013.” Federal Register, Vol. 78, No. 154, pp. 48791-48794, <http://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/Programs/pages/burma.aspx>.
Niksch, A. Larry, 2007/10/04. “Burma-U.S. Relations.” CRS Report for Congress, <https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33479.pdf>.
Rennack, E. Dianne, 2006/02/01. “China: Economic Sanctions.” CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. <http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL31910.pdf>.
__________, 2006/10/17. “North Korea: Economic Sanctions,” CRS Report for Congress, <http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL31696.pdf>.
SIPRI Arms Transfers Database, 2014/06/20 (accessed). “SIPRI Military Expenditure Database.” SIPRI, <http://www.sipri.org/research/armaments/milex/milex_database>.
UNCTAD, 2014/06/04 (accessed). “FDI in brief: Myanmar.” UNCTAD, <http://unctad.org/sections/dite_fdistat/docs/wid_ib_mm_en.pdf>.
UNESCO, 2012/10/02 (accessed). Review on adult education in Myanmar. <http://www.unesco.org/education/uie/pdf/country/Myanmar.pdf>.
United Nations, 2008-2011. “60 ways the United Nations makes a difference.” UN Web Service Section, <http://www.un.org/en/un60/60ways>.
United Nations, 2013/07/14 (accessed). UN Security Council Sanctions Committees: an overview.” <http://www.un.org/sc/committees>.
United Nations Human Rights, 2014/03/14 (accessed). “Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,” United Nations Human Rights, <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/CoIDPRK/Pages/AboutCoI.aspx>.
U.S. Census Bureau, 2014/04/20 (accessed). “Foreign Trade: Top 15 Trading Partners.” <http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/statistics/highlights/top/index.html>.
World Trade Indicators 2009/2010, 2014/06/01. “Myanmar Trade Brief.” World Bank, <http://www.adb.org/Documents/Economic_Updates/MYA/in259_01.pdf>.

Encyclopedias
Encyclopedia of the Nations, s.v. “Burma (Myanmar) – Agriculture.” Accessed June 1, 2014, <http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Burma-Myanmar-AGRICULTURE.html>.
SanctionsWIKI, s.v. “EU.” Accessed April 26, 2014, <http://www.sanctionswiki.org/Myanmar>.
SanctionsWIKI, s.v. “Myanmar.” Accessed March 19, 2014, <http://www.sanctionswiki.org/Myanmar>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “2011–12 Burmese political reforms.” Accessed July 13, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011–12_Burmese_political_reforms>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Apartheid.” Accessed March 6, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Association of Southeast Asian Nations.” Accessed May 02, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Association_of_Southeast_Asian_Nations#ASEAN_Summits>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Aung San Suu Kyi.” Accessed on March 14, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aung_San_Suu_Kyi#International_support>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Bagan.” Accessed June 10, 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bagan>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Burma–Thailand relations.” Accessed December 13, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burma–Thailand_relations>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Disinvestment from South Africa: United States Campaign (1977-1989), The Sullivan Principles (1977).” Accessed March 08, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disinvestment_from_South_Africa#United_States_campaign_.281977-1989.29>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Dual-sector model.” Accessed June 7, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-sector_model>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Economic sanctions.” Accessed July 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_sanctions>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Export Administration Act of 1979.” Accessed May 18, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Export_Administration_Act_of_1979>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Foreign relations of Burma.” Accessed July31, 2013,
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Burma>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Human Development Index.” Accessed July 18, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Development_Index>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “International reactions to the Saffron Revolution.” Accessed May 12, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_reactions_to_the_Saffron_Revolution#Europe>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Internet in Myanmar.” Accessed July 9, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_in_Burma>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Korean War.” Accessed March 20, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “List of active rebel groups.” Accessed December 7, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_active_rebel_groups#Burma>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “List of countries by GDP (PPP).” Accessed April 28, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(PPP)>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “List of ethnic groups in Burma.” Accessed June 28, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ethnic_groups_in_Burma>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Myitsone Dam.” Accessed June 4, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myitsone_Dam>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Racial segregation.” Accessed Mar 07, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_segregation#South_Africa>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Soweto Uprising.” Accessed March 05, 2014, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soweto#Soweto_Uprising>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “State Peace and Development Council.” Accessed December 4, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_Peace_and_Development_Council>.
Wikipedia, s.v. “Vietnam War.” Accessed August 11, 2013, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War>.
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