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研究生:高瑩懿
研究生(外文):Ying-Yi Kao
論文名稱:台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚(Platycephalus indicus)之生殖生物學研究
論文名稱(外文):Reproductive biology of the bartail flathead, Platycephalus indicus, in the waters off southwestern Taiwan
指導教授:陳孟仙陳孟仙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Meng-Hsien chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋事務研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:雌雄異體性比產卵盛期孕卵數多次產卵最小成熟體長
外文關鍵詞:multiple spawnergonochorismsex ratiopeak spawning seasonsmallest size at maturationfecundity
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本研究的印度牛尾魚樣本購自台灣西南部的蚵仔寮和東港漁市場,採樣時間為2012年1月至2013年3月,共採集1,554尾,包括雄魚1,042尾,全長總平均值(±SD)為36.1±5.1 cm(範圍為23.5–57.0 cm);以及雌魚512尾,全長總平均值(±SD)為46.5±6.2 cm(範圍為26.7–68.0 cm)。印度牛尾魚的性比以雄多於雌,並有顯著體型別的性比差異;全長23至41 cm為雄多於雌,而全長大於46 cm則為雌多於雄。標準體長(SL)與全長(TL)之轉換關係式為:SL = 0.8972 × TL – 0.9037(r2 = 0.997)。樣本中沒有發現雌雄同體或性轉變的個體。全長及體重(BW)關係式有顯著雌雄差異,雌魚為BW = 0.0051 × TL3.0754,雄魚為BW = 0.006 × TL3.0136。印度牛尾魚為多次終年產卵魚種,產卵盛期為4月至7月。其最小成熟體型在雌雄魚分別為32.2和24.9 cm,與50%性成熟體型相近(雌魚為35.8 cm,雄為18.9 cm)。雌魚的平均孕卵數(±SD)為563,233±406,080個/尾,平均批次孕卵數為170,363±136,780個/尾,平均相對孕卵數(±SD)為700±312(個/克體重),平均相對批次產卵數(±SD)是236±236(個/克體重)。依據本研究結果,建議落實目前漁業法相關規定,且強力執行4–7月三海浬禁止拖網規定,以便永續利用本漁業資源。
Specimens of 1,554 Indian flathead (P. indicus) (1,042 males; 512 females) were collected in fish markets of Donggang and Kezailiao, southwestern Taiwan, from January 2012 to March 2013. The size of the males ranged from 23.5 to 57 cm (mean±SD: 36.1±5.1 cm) in total length (TL), and that of the females ranged from 26.7 to 68 cm (mean±SD: 46.5±6.2 cm). Males predominated in the TL range between 23 and 41 cm, whereas females outnumbered males in TL greater than 46 cm. The relationship between standard length (SL) and TL was: SL = 0.8972 × TL – 0.9037 (r2 = 0.997). No hermaphroditic or sex-reversing individuals were found in the specimens. Significant differences in the length-weight relationships were found between the male and female fish. The relationships were BW= 0.0051 × TL3.0754 for females and BW= 0.006 × TL3.0136 for males. They are multiple spawners and spawn the whole year round, with their peak spawning season in April to July. Their smallest mature sizes were 32.2 cm for females and 24.9 cm for males, which are similar to 50% of their female and male sexuallymature size, 35.8 cm and 18.9 cm, respectively. The mean fecundity (±SD) was 563,233±406,080 eggs/female and the mean batch fecundity (±SD) was 170,363±136,780 eggs/female. The average female relative fecundity (±SD) was 700±312 eggs per gram of body weight, and the average relative batch fecundity (±SD) was 236±236 eggs/g body weight. Accordingly, the author suggests banning the catching of the flathead from April to July for the sustainable use of the resource.
謝辭……………………………………………………………...………..i
中文摘要………………………………………………………………....ii
英文摘要………………………………………………………………...iii
目錄……………………………………………………………………...iv
表目錄…………………………………………………………………...vi
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..vii
附表目錄……………………………………………………………….viii
第一章、前言……………………………………………………………1
1.1印度牛尾魚簡介……………………………………………………..1
1.2印度牛尾魚之漁業利用……………………………………………..2
1.3印度牛尾魚的生物學研究…………………………………………..3
1.4研究動機及目的……………………………………………………..5
第二章、材料與方法…………………………………………..………..7
2.1樣本鑑定…………………………………………………....………..7
2.2生物學基本資料量測…………………………………....…………..7
2.3孕卵數計數及卵徑測量………………………....…………………..8
2.4組織切片流程…………………....……………..……………………8
2.5數據分析…………………....……………..…………………………9
  2.5.1 體長頻度分布……....….………..……………………….......9
2.5.2 體長與體重關係....……………...……………………….......9
  2.5.3性比……..…………………………………………………...10
2.5.4肥滿度 (Condition factor, K) ……………………………....10
2.5.5生殖腺指數 (Gonadosomatic index, GSI) ………................10
2.5.6肝指數 (Hepatosomatic index, HSI) ……………….…........10
2.5.7攝食強度 (Digestive-somatic index, DSI) ……….…...........10
2.5.8 50%成熟體長……….….........................................................11
2.5.9卵徑頻度分佈…….…............................................................11
2.5.10總孕卵數(Fecundity, F)及批次孕卵數(Batch fecundity, BF)
……………………………………………………………………..11
第三章、結果…………………………………………………………..12
3.1樣本基本生物資料…..……………………………………………..12
3.2雌雄魚體長與體重關係…………..………………………………..12
3.3雌雄魚全長(TL)月別變化……………………………………...13
3.4 GSI、K、HSI、DSI月別變化…..………………………………...13
3.5生殖腺組織切片………………..………………………………......14
3.5.1卵細胞及卵巢發育分期………..……..…………………......14
3.5.2精細胞及精巢發育分期………..……..…………………......16
3.6卵巢、精巢成熟期之月別變化…..………………………..............17
3.7卵徑頻度分佈…..………………………..........................................18
3.8總孕卵數(Fecundity, F)及批次孕卵數(Batch fecundity, BF)……...18
3.9最小成熟體長和50%成熟體長………............................................19
第四章、討論………..............................................................................20
4.1印度牛尾魚之性轉變........................................................................20
4.2印度牛尾魚之生殖特徵…................................................................21
4.3印度牛尾魚之孕卵數………………………………………………24
4.4印度牛尾魚之50%成熟體長............................................................24
4.5印度牛尾魚之資源使用策略............................................................25
參考文獻..................................................................................................28
表目錄
表1. 2012年1月至2013年3月台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚樣本月別
基本生物資料……..........................................................................33
表2. 體長組距性別比例........................................................................35
表3. 卵巢發育分期資料........................................................................36
表4. 精巢發育分期資料........................................................................37
表5. 澳洲產P. fuscus產卵時間表........................................................38
表6. 各海域印度牛尾魚之產卵季節及當地平均海溫...…………….39


圖目錄
圖1. 台灣生產地魚市場牛尾魚行情走勢圖........................................40
圖2. 印度牛尾魚 (Platycephalus indicus) ...........................................41
圖3. Platycephalus sp. II.........................................................................42
圖4. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚體長與體重相關式............................43
圖5. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚全長和標準體長之關係式................44
圖6. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚體長頻度分佈....................................45
圖7. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚月別體長頻度分佈圖........................46
圖8. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚之GSI、K、HSI...............................47
圖9. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚之攝食強度(DSI)...............................48
圖10. 印度牛尾魚卵細胞發育…………………..……………………49
圖11. 印度牛尾魚組織切片卵巢發育分期..........................................51
圖12. 印度牛尾魚精細胞發育……………………………..…………53
圖13. 印度牛尾魚組織切片精巢發育分期..........................................54
圖14. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚成熟度月別變化..............................55
圖15. 卵徑頻度分佈..............................................................................56
圖16. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚總孕卵數與全長和體重之關係......58
圖17. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚批次產卵數與卵巢重之關係..........59
圖18. 微觀(microscope)下最小成熟體長.............................................60
圖19. 巨觀(macroscope)下50%成熟體長............................................61
圖20. 微觀(microscope)下50%成熟體長.............................................62

附表目錄
附表1. 印度牛尾魚不同部位two-way ANOVA table..........................63
附表2. 台灣西南海域印度牛尾魚月別性比統計結果........................64
A. 英文部份
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B. 中文部份
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陳聖玟 2011. 臺灣沿海扁花鰹(Auxis thazard)之生殖生物學研究,碩士論文,漁業生產與管理系,國立高雄海洋科技大學。
葉信明、吳龍靜、陳守仁、吳春基、賴繼昌、陳羿惠、黃建智、翁進興、謝泓諺、程嘉彥、陳秋月、張麗美、邵琬絜、蔡家聖和潘惠婉 2008. 台灣西南海域距岸三海浬內外底拖網漁場底棲生物之生物量及多樣性調查研究(摘要),行政院農委會水產試驗所沿近海資源研究中心研究計畫。
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潘儀庭 2006. 台灣西南沿海䲗科魚類之時空分佈及生殖研究,碩士論文,海洋生物科技暨資源學系,國立中山大學。
謝承叡 2010. 金門沿近海域仔稚魚群聚結構分析,碩士論文,海洋生物技術研究所,國立高雄海洋科技大學。
謝泓諺 2002. 大鵬灣及高屏沿近海域浮游性仔稚魚群聚之比較研究,碩士論文,海洋資源研究所,國立中山大學。
謝豐任 2005. 台灣地區週邊水域魩仔魚漁業混獲特性之研究,碩士論文,環境生物與漁業科學學系,國立台灣海洋大學。
C. 網路資訊
Fishbase. 2012. http://www.fishbase.org/search.php
邵廣昭. 2014. 台灣魚類資料庫網路電子版
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漁產品全球資網. 2014
http://efish.fa.gov.tw/efish/common/bulletinlist.htm
World Sea Temperatures 2014
http://www.seatemperature.org/
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