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研究生:許鎧麟
研究生(外文):Kai-lin Hsu
論文名稱:以淨水程序去除AOC值或吸附去除無機鹽之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on removing AOC value and inorganic salt using water treatment processes or adsorption method
指導教授:樓基中樓基中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jie-Chung Lou
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:吸附淨水程序生物可利用有機碳粒狀活性碳無機鹽
外文關鍵詞:GACInorganic saltsAdsorptionWater treatment processesAOC
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本研究針對南部某一座傳統淨水場進行AOC濃度變化探討及針對鹽類過高的問題,利用動力及平衡吸附實驗探討商用活性碳對水中無機鹽類之吸附特性及模式解析。
生物可利用有機碳(Assimilable Organic Carbon, 簡稱AOC)是表示水中生物可利用有機物量,控制水中之AOC濃度,能有效降低異營性微生物生長所造成的自來水水質劣化。
經由傳統淨水場進行AOC濃度變化實驗結果,顯示淨水場原水AOC含量以AOC-P17百分比例最高,在淨水程序對AOC去除率之影響,發現不同淨水程序對AOC確實有不同去除效果,其中以混凝程序最為有效,前加氯消毒程序會使得原水中大分子量被氧化成小分子量之有機物,故造成原水中AOC含量上升,淨水場最後清水中AOC殘餘濃度仍然過高(高於50 μg acetate-C/L) 。
在吸附去除鹽類之實驗結果顯示,動力吸附試驗約在8小時可達到平衡,吸附量隨著過氯酸鹽濃度增加及離子強度減少而增加,動力實驗結果以Modified Freundlich equation、Pseudo-1st-order equation、Pseudo-2nd-order equation三模式套用,結果以Modified Freundlich equation模擬最佳。等溫吸附試驗在恆溫5 – 45oC範圍內,粒狀活性碳吸附量為28.21 – 33.87 mg/g,試驗數據皆可適用Langmuir及Freundlich模式。粒狀活性碳熱力學參數ΔGo值為-1.49 ~ -1.43 kcal/mol、△Ho為-1.02 kcal/mol,△So為1.47 cal/mol,顯示吸附過程亦屬於自發性放熱反應。
在低離子強度、低pH值、低溫狀態下,有利於粒狀活性碳對過氯酸鹽之吸附。
This study is focused on investigating the variations of AOC level in a conventional water treatment plant (WTP) and solving excess amounts of inorganic salts in drinking water. In addition, we will conduct to evaluate the effects on adsorption capacity of GAC and description on behavior using adsorption models.
AOC is indicating the level of organic carbon in drinking water. Controlling the level of AOC could reduce the amounts of organic nutrients for microorganisms for protecting re-growth of bacterial in finished water and distribution system.
The results of test showed the percent of AOC contained in raw water of WTP was majorly by part of AOC-P17. In measurement of AOC variation in water treatment process, it was found AOC was effectively removed. But the pre-chlorination disinfection process could increase the level of AOC, this was probable reason causing the level of AOC over 50 ppb in finished water in the WTP.
The results of adsorption of perchlorate in water using GAC and SWCNTs showed both adsorption equilibriums were achieved in approximately 8 hr. These adsorption datas were fitted with three models such as modified Freundlich, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order. The modified Freundlich model produced the best fit to describe the kinetic adsorption processes. The adsorption capacity increased as the concentration of perchlorate increased and as the ionic strength of the solution decreased. Maximum perchlorate adsorption capacities of 10.03–13.64  mg/g were attained within a temperature range of 5–45°C on the SWCNTs; and maximum perchlorate adsorption capacities of 28.21 – 33.87  mg/g were attained within a temperature range of 5–45°C on the GAC. The isothermal adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thermodynamic parameters were also calculated in results and discussions in this text, including equilibrium rate constant, standard free energy change, standard enthalpy change, and standard entropy change. Both two adsorption processes were found spontaneous exothermic reaction on the SWCNTs and GAC. In summary, the adsorption isotherm studies demonstrated that low solution pH values, low solution ionic strength, and low temperature conditions could facilitate the adsorption of perchlorate on the GAC.
論文審定書 i
謝  誌 ii
摘  要 iv
Abstract. vi
目  錄 viii
圖  次 xii
表  次 xiv
第一章 前  言 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究目的與內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1水體中有機物及無機鹽來源 3
2.2硫酸鹽、氯鹽及硝酸鹽對人體的影響及處理方法 3
2.3過氯酸鹽的來源及人體之健康影響 6
2.4過氯酸鹽的分析技術 8
2.4.1早期分析方法 8
2.4.2現代分析方法 10
2.5淨水程序之水處理廠概況 10
2.5.1分水井原理 11
2.5.2膠凝沉澱池原理 11
2.5.3快濾池原理 12
2.6生物可利用有機碳檢驗介紹 12
2.6.1生物可利用有機碳分析方法比較 15
2.7奈米碳管及粒狀活性碳簡介 18
2.8奈米碳管之應用 23
2.9吸附原理 24
2.9.1影響吸附能力因素 26
2.9.2動力吸附模式 27
2.9.3等溫吸附模式 29
2.10熱力學模式 32
第三章 實驗材料與方法 34
3.1實驗流程 34
3.2實驗材料與設備 36
3.2.1實驗材料 36
3.2.2實驗設備 37
3.3實驗藥品 38
3.4分析方法 38
3.4.1有機物分析方法 39
3.4.2硫酸鹽、氯鹽及硝酸鹽之分析方法 43
3.4.3過氯酸鹽之分析方法及檢量線配製 43
3.5奈米碳管之特性分析 45
3.5.1掃描式電子顯微鏡 45
3.5.2比表面積分析儀 45
3.5.3霍氏轉換紅外線光譜 46
3.5.4熱重量分析儀 46
3.6吸附實驗步驟 47
3.6.1實驗裝置 47
3.6.2三種無機鹽之先期吸附實驗步驟:不同PH值 47
3.6.3過氯酸鹽動力吸附實驗 48
3.6.4平衡吸附實驗:不同PH值 48
3.6.5平衡吸附實驗:不同溫度 49
3.7吸附模式模擬步驟 50
3.8熱力學參數計算步驟 50
3.9微量有機物處理實驗步驟 50
第四章 結果與討論 53
4.1原水中AOC值之變化 53
4.2以不同淨水程序處理水中AOC值之效率 54
4.2.1前加氯 54
4.2.2膠凝沉澱 55
4.2.3快濾池及後加氯 55
4.3原水及水處理廠處理後清水之水質比較 56
4.4奈米碳管及粒狀活性碳之物化特性 59
4.5硫酸鹽、氯鹽、硝酸鹽吸附效率 64
4.6過氯酸鹽動力吸附 66
4.6.1吸附平衡動力實驗 66
4.6.2不同離子強度之影響 68
4.6.3不同腐植酸濃度之影響 72
4.7過氯酸鹽等溫吸附 76
4.7.1不同PH值之影響 76
4.7.2不同溫度之影響 77
4.8吸附熱力學之計算 80
4.9國內外文獻之吸附劑及效率之比較 82
第五章 結論與建議 83
5.1結論 83
5.2建議 84
參考文獻 85
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