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研究生:張億閔
研究生(外文):Yi-Min Jhang
論文名稱:台灣海峽周邊地區大氣汞時空分佈及污染來源解析
論文名稱(外文):Tempospatial Distribution and Source Identification of Atmospheric Mercury surrounding the Taiwan Strait
指導教授:袁中新袁中新引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Shin Yuan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:時空分佈大氣汞型態台灣海峽周邊地區傳輸路徑污染源解析
外文關鍵詞:source identificationtransportation routestempospatial distributionspeciated atmospheric mercuryTaiwan Strait
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台灣海峽兩岸均為人口密集且工業發達的區域,大量含汞污染物排放至台灣海峽大氣中,再加上盛行於每年秋、冬季之工業排放與春季的亞洲大陸沙塵暴與生質燃燒,也帶來大量含汞空氣污染物,並經由傳輸或沉降於台灣海峽陸域與海域中,成為台灣海峽周邊地區空氣品質不佳的重要原因之ㄧ。
有鑑於此,本研究使用行政院環境檢驗所公告之「空氣中汞檢測及分析標準方法」(NIEA A304.10C)及美國環保總署公告之IO-5方法,針對台灣海峽周邊地區六處採樣站同步進行環境大氣中總氣態汞(TGM)與顆粒態汞(Hgp)的量測與分析,藉以瞭解台灣海峽周邊地區大氣汞時空分佈之情形。另外,本研究亦規畫採樣船舶(海研三號),針對台灣海峽海域進行TGM與Hgp之採樣,並利用RGM擴散管於台灣海峽東部地區進行反應性氣態汞(RGM)之量測,探討台灣海峽海域與台灣海峽東部地區RGM空間分佈之情形。此外,本研究使用NOAA-HYSPLIT Model逆軌跡模式與全球火點分佈圖(Global Fire Map)來推估污染氣團來源與燃燒源,並且與各空氣污染物進行相關性分析與探討。
由大氣汞(含TGM與Hgp)量測結果及等濃度分佈顯示,台灣海峽周邊地區季節性大氣汞濃度高低依序為:春季&;gt;冬季&;gt;秋季&;gt;夏季,而TGM與Hgp平均值分別為4.56±0.35 ng/m3與0.17±0.02 ng/m3,濃度範圍則分別介於3.22~5.84 ng/m3與0.06~0.25 ng/m3之間,最高TGM與Hgp濃度均位於廈門翔安地區。大氣汞氣固相分佈則以TGM為主,TGM及Hgp分別介於95.70~98.34%和1.66~4.35%。此外,由氣固相百分比來判斷本次污染源可能以都會區排放為主,少部分地區則以工業區所排放之含汞污染物居多。就台灣海峽東部地區RGM量測結果顯示,RGM濃度在TAM中所佔比例分別為1.37%(新北)、1.79%(台中)及1.67%(高雄);此外,RGM濃度高低依序為:高雄鼓山&;gt;台中沙鹿&;gt;新北三貂角,顯示出高雄鼓山地區RGM濃度均較其他地區略高;而在台灣海峽海域方面,大氣汞之污染源以大陸沿海與華北地區長程傳輸為主。
由逆軌跡模式及氣象監測資料顯示,夏季採樣期間污染氣團主要來自南方及菲律賓海域,該區域在全球火點分佈圖中顯示出並無大型燃燒源排放,因而使大氣汞濃度較其他季節來得低;在秋、冬季節期間,大陸華北地區與沿海地區工業排放興盛,氣團挾帶著含汞污染物經季風傳輸至台灣海峽地區。在春季期間,污染氣團先傳輸至大陸華北沿海地區出海後再轉向台灣海峽地區,此時大陸高壓氣流較為強勁,迫使氣團直接朝東南方向傳輸,出海並傳輸至台灣海峽地區。
在東沙群島採樣期間盛行風向為東風或東北東風,其氣團主要來自東方海域,通過台灣島與呂宋島之間的巴士海峽而傳輸至東沙群島,在此海域附近並無區域燃燒或污染源排放活動,因而造成東沙群島TGM濃度較台灣海峽周邊地區低了許多。另與世界各主要城市大氣汞濃度比較而言,台灣海峽周邊地區大氣汞濃度普遍低於中國大陸的城市,但卻較日本、韓國及歐美城市為高。
The Taiwan Strait is a densely populated and industrially developed area, where a large number of mercury is emitted to its atmosphere. Asian dust storms, biomass burning, and northeastern Monsoons frequently occurred in the spring and winter. It could lead to a large number of atmospheric mercury and anthropogenic air pollutants across the Taiwan Strait from long-range transportation, which could cause poor ambient air quality of the Taiwan Strait.
This study aimed to measure the speciation and concentration of atmospheric mercury, and further investigated their tempospatial distribution. The concentrations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) were measured at six sampling sites surrounding the Taiwan Strait. A standard method for sampling and analyzing mercury in air (NIEA Method A304.10C) announced by the National Institute of Environmental Analysis (NIEA), mostly adopted from USEPA Method IO-5, was applied for the measurement of TGM and Hgp. This study also sampled TGM and Hgp in a sampling vessel (R/V Ocean Researcher III) navigated in the Taiwan Strait, and developed a KCl-coated annular denuder to sample reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) in the east side of the Taiwan Strait, and further investigated the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric mercury concentration. In addition, this study applied a NOAA-HYSPLIT Model and a Global Fire Map to figure out the transportation routes of polluted air mass by a backward trajectory, a fire spot map, and the correlation analysis of mercury concentration with meteorological parameters and criteria air pollutants.
The results showed that the concentration of TGM and Hgp measured at six sites surrounding the Taiwan Strait were 4.56±0.35 ng/m3 and 0.17±0.02 ng/m3 with the range of 3.22-5.84 ng/m3 and 0.06-0.25 ng/m3, respectively, and were ordered as : spring &;gt;winter &;gt; fall &;gt; summer. Moreover, the highest TGM and Hgp concentration was observed at the Xiamen Xiang-Ann site. Atmospheric mercury apportioned as 95.70~ 98.34% TGM and 1.66~4.35% Hgp. The emission of Hgp came mainly from metropolitan areas and only small part of them emitted from industrial areas. Total atmospheric mercury apportioned as 1.34~1.79% RGM. RGM concentration were ordered as : Kaohsiung Gushan &;gt; Taichung Sha-Lu &;gt; New Taipei City Sandiaojiao. The results indicated that the RGM concentration at Kaohsiung Gushan was higher than other sites. While measured in the sampling vessel, the atmospheric mercury in the Taiwan Strait was mainly transported from the North China and mainland´s coastal areas.
Results obtained from backward trajectory simulation and meteorological data showed that, in summer, the air masses transported toward the Taiwan Strait was mainly come from the South China Sea. The concentration of TGM and Hgp in summer appeared to be relatively lower than those in other seasons. However, the atmospheric mercury levels surrounding the Taiwan Strait increased in fall, winter, and spring, while the air masses were transported from the Northeast Asia by northeastern Monsoons.
During the Dongsha Islands sampling periods, the prevailing winds were blown from either the east or the northeast in spring. The backward trajectory simulation results showed that the air masses toward the Dongsha Islands were mostly transported from the East China Sea through the Bashi Channel between the Taiwan and the Luzon Islands. Very few combustion or pollution discharge activities in these regions, resulting in much lower TGM concentration at the Dongsha Islands than that surrounding the Taiwan Strait. Compared to other cities in the world, the concentration of atmospheric mercury surrounding the Taiwan Strait was generally lower than the cities of mainland China, but higher than Japan, Korea, European, and American cities.
目 錄 頁次
論文審定書………………………………………………………….. i
謝誌………………………………………………………………….. ii
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….. iii
英文摘要…………………………………………………………….. v
目錄………………………………………………………………….. viii
表目錄……………………………………………………………….. xi
圖目錄……………………………………………………………….. xiii
第一章 前言……………………………………………………….. 1
1-1 研究緣起…………………………………………………… 1
1-2 研究目的…………………………………………………… 2
1-3 研究範圍與架構………………………………………….... 2
第二章 文獻回顧………………………………………………….. 5
2-1 汞的背景介紹.……………….…………………………….. 5
2-1-1 汞的基本特性…………………………………………. 5
2-1-2 大氣汞的型態及組成特徵……………………………. . 6
2-1-3 大氣汞的來源及循環…………………………………. 7
2-2 汞的健康風險………………………………………………. 10
2-2-1 汞的危害標準………………………………………….. 10
2-2-2 汞的毒性與危害性…………………………………….. 11
2-3 大氣汞量測方法……………………………………………. 13
2-3-1大氣汞量測技術演進…………………………………... 13
2-3-2不同型態大氣汞採樣及分析方法……………………...15
2-3-3反應性氣態汞量測方法的演進………………………... 16
2-4 常見汞連續監測儀之比較………………………………….18
2-5 逆軌跡模式之原理與應用…………………………………. 20
2-5-1逆軌跡模式之原理……………………………………...20
2-5-2逆軌跡模式之應用……………………………………...21
2-6 國內外大氣汞相關研究……………………………………. 22
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………….. 30
3-1 大氣汞採樣規劃……………………………………………. 30
3-1-1 採樣地點規劃………………………………………….. 30
3-1-2 採樣時間規劃………………………………………….. 30
3-2 大氣汞量測方法與步驟……………………………………. 32
3-2-1 TGM量測步驟………………………...……………….. 32
3-2-2 Hgp量測步驟………..…………………………………. 34
3-2-3 RGM量測步驟..………..……………………………… 36
3-3 大氣汞分析方法與步驟……………………………………. 39
3-3-1 TGM分析方法與步驟…………………………………. 40
3-3-2 Hgp分析方法與步驟…………………………………... 42
3-3-3 RGM分析方法與步驟………………………………… 42
3-4 大氣汞採樣及分析之品保與品管(QA/QC)……………….. 43
3-5 冷蒸氣原子螢光光譜儀…………………………………….45
3-6 汞連續監測儀……………………………………………….48
3-7 污染源解析方法…………………………………………….49
3-7-1 逆軌跡模式……………………………………………..49
3-7-2 等濃度空間分佈………………………………………..50
第四章 結果與討論……………………………………………….. 51
4-1 RGM採樣分析方法驗證與測試……………………………51
4-1-1 RGM擴散管空白測試…………………………………51
4-1-2 RGM擴散管穿透率實驗………………………………52
4-1-3 RGM採樣器平行比對試驗……………………………53
4-2 TGM與Hgp驗證與測試…………………………………….54
4-2-1 金汞齊吸附管空白測試...……………………………... 54
4-2-2 金汞齊吸附管穿透率實驗……………………………..55
4-2-3 Hgp乾式高溫脫附法及濕式消化法比較實驗………... 56
4-3台灣海峽地區大氣汞時空分佈……………………………... 57
4-3-1 台灣海峽周邊地區TGM與Hgp之時空分佈…………...57
4-3-2 台灣海峽周邊地區TGM與Hgp之空間分佈…………...68
4-3-3 台灣海峽東岸地區大氣汞之空間分佈………………..72
4-3-4 台灣海峽海上TGM與Hgp量測分析…………………... 73
4-4 台灣海峽周邊地區大氣汞污染源解析…………………….74
4-4-1 污染氣團傳輸路徑分析………………………………..75
4-4-2 全球火點監測分析……………………………………..82
4-4-3 大氣汞濃度、氣象參數及空氣污染物之相關性………83
4-5 東沙群島大氣汞濃度變化趨勢與探討…………………….85
4-6 台灣海峽地區大氣汞濃度與世界各主要城市比較………. 89
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………… 92
5-1 結論………………………………………………………... 92
5-2 建議………………………………………………………... 94
參考文獻……………………………………………………………. 96
附錄A 大氣汞量測數據…………………………………………… 109
附錄B 東沙群島大氣汞監測小時數據…………………………... 112
表目錄
頁次
表 2-1 汞之物理及化學特性………………………………………5
表 2-2 大氣汞之採樣及分析方法總覽……………………………15
表 2-3 空氣中RGM檢測方法比較表……………………………..19
表 2-4 常見之環境空氣中汞污染物連續監測儀彙整表…………19
表 2-5 全球主要工業製程的汞排放量……………………………25
表 3-1 台灣海峽周邊地區大氣汞採樣站環境描述彙整表………31
表 3-2 TGM 檢量線製備及差異百分比…………………………...47
表 3-3 RGM 檢量線製備及差異百分比…………………………...47
表 3-4 Hgp 檢量線製備及差異百分比……………………………..47
表 4-1 RGM 擴散管空白測試結果彙整表………………………...52
表 4-2 RGM 擴散管穿透率測試結果彙整表……………………...53
表 4-3 RGM 擴散管平行比對測試結果彙整表…………………...54
表 4-4 金汞齊吸附管空白測試結果彙整表………………………55
表 4-5 金汞齊吸附管穿透率測試結果彙整表……………………55
表 4-6 濕式消化法與高溫脫附法比對測試結果彙整表…………57
表 4-7 馬祖南竿採樣站氣象資料彙整表…………………………60
表 4-8 廈門翔安採樣站氣象資料彙整表…………………………60
表 4-9 澎湖小門採樣站氣象資料彙整表…………………………60
表 4-10 高雄鼓山採樣站氣象資料彙整表………………………..61
表 4-11 台中沙鹿採樣站氣象資料彙整表………………………..61
表 4-12 新北三貂角採樣站氣象資料彙整表……………………..61
表 4-13 台灣海峽周邊地區氣象參數彙整表……………………..65
表 4-14 台灣海峽周邊地區TGM與Hgp 濃度季節變化彙整表….67
表 4-15 台灣海峽東部地區大氣汞濃度彙整表…………………..73
表 4-16 台灣海峽海域大氣汞濃度彙整表………………………..74
表 4-17 大氣汞濃度、氣象參數與各污染物相關性彙整表………84
表 4-18 台灣地區TGM 濃度比較表………………………………89
表 4-19 台灣海峽與世界各主要城市大氣汞濃度比較表………..91
表 A-1 夏、秋季TGM 與Hgp 採樣分析紀錄…………………….110
表 A-2 冬、春季TGM 與Hgp 採樣分析紀錄……………………111
表 B-1 東沙群島二月大氣汞監測數據……………………………113
表 B-2 東沙群島三月大氣汞監測數據……………………………114
表 B-3 東沙群島四月大氣汞監測數據……………………………116
圖目錄
頁次
圖 1-1 研究架構及流程圖…………………………………………4
圖 2-1 2005 年全球人為污染之汞排放量…………………………8
圖 2-2 電腦模擬繪製的全球地表大氣汞濃度分佈………………9
圖 2-3 全球汞循環示意圖…………………………………………9
圖 2-4 台灣與韓國大陸沙塵暴期間氣團逆軌跡預測圖…………24
圖 2-5 中國大陸境內廢棄物焚化廠分佈…………………………24
圖 2-6 鹿林山測站2007 年3 月與7 月之5 日後推逆軌跡……….25
圖 2-7 大氣汞濃度在底特律逐時變化趨勢………………………26
圖 3-1 台灣海峽周邊地區大氣汞採樣站位置圖…………………31
圖 3-2 大氣汞(含TGM 及Hgp)量測裝置示意圖與實體圖………32
圖 3-3 金汞齊吸附管實體圖………………………………………34
圖 3-4 Hgp 採樣用之開放式濾紙匣實體圖……………………….36
圖 3-5 RGM擴散管實體圖………………………………………...37
圖 3-6 鍍KCl 擴散管熱脫附動作………………………………….38
圖 3-7 汞標準氣體產生氣與專用氣針……………………………41
圖 3-8 元素汞標準品檢量線(TGM 濃度適用) …………………...46
圖 3-9 元素汞標準品檢量線(RGM 濃度適用) …………………..46
圖 3-10 元素汞標準品檢量線(Hgp 濃度適用) ……………………46
圖 3-11 冷蒸氣原子螢光光譜儀(CVAFS)實體圖………………...48
圖 3-12 Tekran 2537B 總氣態汞連續監測儀實體圖………………49
圖 3-13 NOAA 逆軌跡模式實體圖………………………………...50
圖 4-1 大氣汞採樣系統示意圖……………………………………52
圖 4-2 RGM擴散管穿透率測試結果比較圖……………………...53
圖 4-3 RGM擴散管平行比對結果比較圖………………………...54
圖 4-4 金汞齊吸附管穿透率測試結果比較圖……………………56
圖 4-5 濕式消化法與高溫脫附法實驗示意圖……………………57
圖 4-6 馬祖南竿TGM與Hgp 濃度之季節變化趨勢……………...61
圖 4-7 廈門翔安TGM與Hgp 濃度之季節變化趨勢……………...62
圖 4-8 澎湖小門TGM與Hgp 濃度之季節變化趨勢……………...62
圖 4-9 高雄鼓山TGM與Hgp 濃度之季節變化趨勢……………...62
圖 4-10 台中沙鹿TGM與Hgp 濃度之季節變化趨勢…………….63
圖 4-11 新北三貂角TGM與Hgp濃度之季節變化趨勢…………..63
圖 4-12 台灣海峽周邊地區不同季節TGM 與Hgp 濃度空間分佈
趨勢………………………………………………………..66
圖 4-13 台灣海峽周邊地區TGM與Hgp 濃度百分比…………….68
圖 4-14 台灣海峽夏季期間TGM與Hgp 等濃度圖……………….69
圖 4-15 台灣海峽秋季期間TGM與Hgp 等濃度圖……………….69
圖 4-16 台灣海峽冬季期間TGM與Hgp 等濃度圖……………….70
圖 4-17 台灣海峽春季期間TGM與Hgp 等濃度圖……………….70
圖 4-18 台灣海峽周邊地區不同季節大氣汞污染玫瑰圖………..71
圖 4-19 冬季海上航跡圖…………………………………………..74
圖 4-20 春季海上航跡圖…………………………………………..74
圖 4-21 馬祖夏季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..76
圖 4-22 廈門夏季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..76
圖 4-23 澎湖夏季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..77
圖 4-24 高雄夏季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..77
圖 4-25 台中夏季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..77
圖 4-26 新北夏季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..77
圖 4-27 馬祖秋季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..78
圖 4-28 廈門秋季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..78
圖 4-29 澎湖秋季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..78
圖 4-30 高雄秋季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..78
圖 4-31 台中秋季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..79
圖 4-32 新北秋季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..79
圖 4-33 馬祖冬季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..79
圖 4-34 廈門冬季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..79
圖 4-35 澎湖冬季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..80
圖 4-36 高雄冬季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..80
圖 4-37 台中冬季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..80
圖 4-38 新北冬季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..80
圖 4-39 馬祖春季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..81
圖 4-40 廈門春季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..81
圖 4-41 澎湖春季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..81
圖 4-42 高雄春季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..81
圖 4-43 台中春季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..82
圖 4-44 新北春季氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..82
圖 4-45 亞洲地區採樣期間火點分佈圖…………………………..83
圖 4-46 東沙群島春季期間大氣汞濃度變化趨勢………………..86
圖 4-47 東沙二月氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..87
圖 4-48 東沙三月氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..87
圖 4-49 東沙四月氣團逆軌跡圖…………………………………..88
圖 4-50 2008-2014 年東沙群島大氣汞濃度………………………88
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夏新、吴志强、康长安、彭刚华、胡正生、王向明、马芳,“測定汞的原子螢光法和冷原子吸收法比對研究” 中國測試(CHINA MEASUREMENT &; TEST),2012。
劉燕,“廈泉金地區大氣汞的時空分佈研究” 廈門大學生態與環境科學系碩士論文,2012。
蔡政謀,“台灣寺廟拜香及金紙焚燒排放含汞污染物之室內外環境日夜變化及排放係數量測”,國立中山大學環境工程研究所碩士論文,2013。
任翼秀,“工業都市及海島地區大氣汞時空分佈、氣固相分佈及長程傳輸之影響”, 國立中山大學環境工程研究所博士論文,2013。
NOAA空氣資源實驗室網頁: http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php
NASA FIRMS Web Fire Mapper: https://firms.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/firemap/
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