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研究生:劉懿慧
研究生(外文):Liu, Valerie I-hui
論文名稱:口說中「公式化字串」之發展- 以英文為第二外語學習者之個案研究
論文名稱(外文):The Development of Formulaic Sequences in Oral Production: A Case Study of Advanced EFL Learners
指導教授:黃虹慈黃虹慈引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Hung-Tzu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:公式化字串
外文關鍵詞:Formulaic sequencesL2 speakingOral production
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摘要
經研究指出,「公式化字串」(Formulaic sequences) 有助於增加口說流俐度、提升溝通效率,在第二語言習得研究領域頗受重視。許多橫斷性研究(cross-sectional study)已證實教授公式化字串對語言學習者有助益,但是鮮少研究者從不同面向分析第二外語學習者如何在口說中使用「公式化字串」。
本研究旨在探討三位以英文為第二外語學習者在十五週內,如何在英文口說中使用「公式化字串」,以及其「公式化字串」在使用的頻率、多樣性、和正確度三面向之間有何關聯。受試者為三位台灣的某國立大學英文主修研究生,其英文能力皆為高階程度。受試者在十五週內分別進行三次口說項目,每次相隔六週。口說項目進行方式為¬¬:受試者先與研究者進行大約二十分鐘的對話(conversations),再作五分鐘即席演說(impromptu speeches)。口說錄音檔(約225分鐘)打成逐字稿後,用來擷取受試者使用的「公式化字串」,以及統計其「公式化字串」在頻率、多樣性、正確度三面向之數據,並進一步作質性分析。研究結果顯示,在十五週內,三位受試者的「公式化字串」在頻率和多樣性有較多的波動,而其正確度大致維持在比較穩定的狀態。大致上而言,三位受試者的「公式化字串」在十五週內並無明顯的發展。研究推測可能因為三位受試者使用「公式化字串」的能力已達到母語人士的水準。因此,在頻率、多樣性、正確度之間並沒有觀察到互動。此研究提供教師在面對英文高階程度的學生,可使用的口說項目之教學建議。並指出未來研究可採用質性研究方法(例如:面對面訪談),進一步探討進階程度學生的「公式化字串」之使用。 

Abstract
The aim of the present study is to explore three advanced EFL learners’ FSs uses in oral production over time by analyzing how three dimensions of FS: frequency, variation, and accuracy change and interact within fifteen weeks. Participants were three advanced English learners who were studying in a MA program in a public university in northern Taiwan. The learners’ FSs uses were tracked through the collection of oral production three times at six-week intervals. Each participant gave three impromptu speeches and engaged in three conversations respectively. The transcripts of the impromptu speeches and the conversations were analyzed by quantitatively calculating the FS frequency, variation, and accuracy values, and qualitatively annotating the functions of FS in context. The results reveal that the learners’ FS frequency and variation values fluctuated in their oral production in a small degree, while the FS accuracy values remained in a more stable state. Overall, the participants showed excellent performance in FS uses in the three dimensions, reaching the level of native-speaker use. No salient interaction was observed among the three dimensions of FSs. These findings have pedagogical implications for designing speaking tasks at advanced levels. It is suggested that future research on advanced EFL learners’ FS development can be examined with qualitative data such as interviews. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract (Chinese)...................................................................................................................... i
Abstract (English)..................................................................................................................... ii
Acknowledgments.................................................................................................................... iii
Table of Contents......................................................................................................................v
List of Tables.......................................................................................................................... viii
List of Figures.......................................................................................................................... ix

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 1
Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................... 3
2.1 Definitions of formulaic sequences .....................................................................................3
2.2 Features of formulaic sequences......................................................................................... 4
2.2.1 Functions of formulaic sequences............................................................................ 4
2.2.2 Phonological features............................................................................................... 5
2.2.3 Frequency of occurrence.......................................................................................... 5
2.2.4Fixedness ...................................................................................................................6
2.3 The values of formulaic sequences in L2 speaking .............................................................6
2.3.1 FS facilitates language processing ...........................................................................7
2.3.2 FS promotes oral fluency .........................................................................................7
2.3.3 FS as an oral production strategy for communication ..............................................8
2.4 Instructional effects of FSs on L2 oral production ..............................................................9
2.5 The development and acquisition of formulaic sequences ................................................11
2.6 Theoretical framework of this study: The Dynamic System Theory ................................15
2.7 Research questions ............................................................................................................16
Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................18
3.1 Participants ........................................................................................................................18
3.2 Data collection................................................................................................................... 18
3.2.1 Collection of oral production .................................................................................18
3.2.2 Data collection procedure .......................................................................................19
3.3 Data Analysis .....................................................................................................................19
3.3.1 Transcribing the elicited oral production ................................................................19
3.3.2 FS identification..................................................................................................... 20
3.3.3 FS frequency........................................................................................................... 22
3.3.4 FS variation............................................................................................................ 22
3.3.5 FS accuracy............................................................................................................. 22
3.3.6 Qualitative analysis.................................................................................................24
Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION..............................................................................26
4.1 Learner data .......................................................................................................................26
4.2 FS frequency...................................................................................................................... 28
4.2.1 Standardized FS frequency values......................................................................... 28
4.2.2 High-frequency FS types in the three participants’ oral production.......................31
4.3 FS variation...................................................................................................................... .37
4.3.1 Standardized FS variation values ...........................................................................37
4.3.2 Common constructions used in the participants’ oral production.......................... 39
4.3.3 Use of I think in the three participants’ oral production......................................... 41
4.4 FS accuracy........................................................................................................................ 48
4.4.1 Standardized FS accuracy values........................................................................... 48
4.4.2 Errors in the participants’ oral production.............................................................. 50
4.4.2.1 Errors on language appropriacy............................................................................52
4.4.2.2 Errors on lexical usage.........................................................................................54
4.4.2.3 Errors on grammatical use.................................................................................. 55
4.5 Overall trend in the frequency, variation, and accuracy of the participants’ FS use..........56
4.6 The relationship among the development of FS frequency, variation, and accuracy........ 57
4.7 Non-interaction among the subsystems of FS in the participants’ oral production............61
Chapter 5 CONCLUSION...................................................................................................... 64
5.1 Pedagogical implications.................................................................................................. 64
5.2 Limitations and suggestions for future research............................................................... 65
References............................................................................................................................... 68
Appendix A Task instructions and topics for elicited oral production.................................... 74
Appendix B Coding protocol ..................................................................................................77
Appendix C Consent form........................................................................................................78 
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Learner data consisting of the three participant’s oral production.......................... 26
Table 4.2 FS frequency values in the three participants’ oral production............................... 27
Table 4.3 FS development in the current study and Qi & Ding’s study...................................30
Table 4.4 High-frequency FS types used in the three participants’ oral production............... 31
Table 4.5 Comparison and contrast between the high-frequency FSs and the FSs in the AFL ..........................................................................................................................................33
Table 4.6 FS variation values in the three participants' oral production................................. 36
Table 4.7 Common constructions used in the three participants' oral production.................. 38
Table 4.8 Uses of I think in the three participants’ oral production........................................ 41
Table 4.9 FS accuracy values in the three participants’ oral production................................. 47
Table 4.10 Number of errors on FS accuracy......................................................................... 49
Table 4.11 Example errors in the three participants’ oral production..................................... 51



LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4.1 FS frequency values in participants’ impromptu speeches.................................... 28
Figure 4.2 FS frequency values in participants’ conversations............................................... 28
Figure 4.3 FS variation values in participants’ impromptu speeches...................................... 36
Figure 4.4 FS variation values in participants’ conversations................................................. 36
Figure 4.5 FS frequency values in L.’s oral production.......................................................... 56
Figure 4.6 FS variation values in L.’s oral production............................................................ 56
Figure 4.7 FS frequency values in J.’s oral production........................................................... 56
Figure 4.8 FS variation values in J.’s oral production............................................................. 56
Figure 4.9 FS frequency values in M.’s oral production......................................................... 56
Figure 4.10 FS variation in M.’s oral production.................................................................... 56
Figure 4.11 FS accuracy in L.’s impromptu speeches............................................................. 57
Figure 4.12 FS accuracy in L.’s conversations........................................................................ 57
Figure 4.13 FS accuracy values in J.’s impromptu speeches.................................................. 57
Figure 4.14 FS accuracy values in J.’s conversations............................................................. 57
Figure 4.15 FS accuracy values in M.’s impromptu speeches ................................................57
Figure 4.16 FS accuracy values in M.’s conversations........................................................... 57

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