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研究生:陳立言
研究生(外文):Chen, LiYen
論文名稱:利用人員劑量佩章進行輻射防護量與作業量之差異比較
論文名稱(外文):Comparison of the differences between radiation protection quantities and operational quantities assessed by personal dosimeters
指導教授:許靖涵許芳裕
指導教授(外文):Hsu, Ching-HanHsu, Fang-Yuh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:生醫工程與環境科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:生醫工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:光刺激發光劑量計有效劑量個人等效劑量
外文關鍵詞:OSLDeffective dosepersonal dose equivalent
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 由ICRU定義輻射防護作業量,一般被認定其能提供對於輻射防護量一保守之評估。本實驗利用侖道假體與熱發光劑量系統的方法量測實際之有效劑量與眼球水晶體與皮膚之等價劑量,並以目前常用之人員劑量計,熱發光人員劑量計與光刺激發光人員劑量計評估之不同深度個人等效劑量,於四種不同的光子曝露場(80 kV,130 kV,6 MV,10 MV)中,與4種不同曝露幾何(AP,PA,LLAT,RLAT)下,其兩者讀值差異,並計算出其轉換系數。一般國際文獻以蒙地卡羅模擬方式進行兩者數值之比對,本研究將實驗結果進行修正後與國際文獻進行比較。結果顯示,目前常用之人員劑量計僅在AP曝露條件下之大部分情形下在有效劑量部分可提供一保守之估計,在PA與RLAT曝露角度下,因佩章受到器官或組織之屏蔽使其低估真實防護量。而側邊照射時人員劑量佩章的結構會影響其評估,此為模擬方式並未考量的誤差。
Personal dose equivalent, Hp(d) defined by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, were commonly regarded as conservative surrogates of effective dose and equivalent dose of lens and skin. The study checked the valid of the assumption by experiments. E, effective dose was measured with RANDO phantom and TL system according to ICRP Recommendations. Hp(d) were measured with two kinds of dosimetry badges, Harshaw TLD dosimeters and Landauer OSLD dosimeters. The conversion coefficients of E/Hp(d) and HT/ Hp(d) were calculated which concerned irradiation by different photon energies (80 kV to10 MV)and irradiation geometries(AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT). The variance of conversion coefficients with five dosimeter positions in front of the torso which the radiation workers often wear on were discussed. The study also compared the conversion coefficients in this experiment with the published data which were simulated by Monte Carlo N-Particle code. The result showed that Hp(d) underestimate the effective dose and equivalent dose of lens and skin in some photon energies, especially low energies and some unfavorable geometries. And this study shows that defect of LAT geometry in the published data which was simulated.
目次
誌謝 I
目次 II
中文摘要 IV
Abstract V
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 輻射工作人員劑量規範 2
1.3 人員劑量佩章 4
1.4 研究目的 4
1.5 文獻回顧 5
第二章 光子特性 17
2.1 光子源 17
2.2 光子與物質作用的機制 17
2.2.1 瑞利散射 18
2.2.2 光電效應 18
2.2.3 康普吞效應 19
2.2.4 成對效應 20
2.2.5 光核反應 21
2.3 光子作用與能量沉積 21
2.4 光子偵檢原理 23
第3章 材料與方法 25
3.1 前言 25
3.2 熱發光劑量計 25
3.2.1 TLD原理 25
3.2.2 TLD的篩選 27
3.2.3 TLD的能量依持性 28
3.2.4 TLD讀值與劑量的相應關係及其校正 29
3.2.5 TLD的計讀與輝光曲線 33
3.2.6 TLD的回火 35
3.3 侖道假體與劑量 35
3.3.1 侖道假體 36
3.3.2 劑量的定義與有效劑量的計算方式 37
3.3.3 以TLD量測有效劑量之實驗設計 39
3.3.4以TLD量測皮膚與眼球水晶體等價劑量之實驗設計 41
3.4 人員劑量佩章 41
3.5 光子照射實驗設計 43
3.5.1 6 MV,10 MV光子照射實驗 43
3.5.2 Co-60光子照射實驗 43
3.5.3 130 kV,80 kV光子照射實驗 44
3.5.4 光子照野均勻性修正 45
第4章 結果與討論 47
4.1 標準位置佩章與實際劑量比較 47
4.1.1 個人等效劑量Hp(10)與有效劑量E比較 48
4.1.2 個人等效劑量Hp(3)與眼球水晶體等價劑量He比較 50
4.1.3 個人等效劑量Hp(0.07)與皮膚等價劑量Hs比較 52
4.2 不同位置佩章讀值比較 55
4.3 平均曝露的評估 59
4.4 ICRP 103與ICRP 60之有效劑量比較 60
4.5 側邊照射佩章結構的影響 61
4.6 國際文獻與本研究比較 62
第5章 結論 67
參考文獻 70
附件 73



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