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研究生:洪禔韓
研究生(外文):Hong Ti-Han
論文名稱:刺桐釉小蜂造癭在刺桐葉面的分布偏好
論文名稱(外文):Galling Preference on the Leaves of Erythrina Variegate by Quadrastichus Erythrinae Kim
指導教授:鄭先祐鄭先祐引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng Hsien-Yu
口試委員:黃文伯楊曼妙
口試委員(外文):Hwang Wen-beYang Man-Miao
口試日期:2014-01-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南大學
系所名稱:生態科學與技術學系環境生態碩士班
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:43
中文關鍵詞:刺桐釉小蜂蟲癭外部型態造癭偏好
外文關鍵詞:Quadrastichus erythrinae KimExternal morphology of gallsPreference of gall formation
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桐釉小蜂的蟲癭形態,由成熟次序(卵至成蟲)及外觀可分為五個類型下列為三個判斷標準。其一葉面凸起的顏色由淺綠至黃綠色;其二會出現深色小點(蟲室);其三小點周圍顏色也會由淺黃綠色至咖啡色。第一類型團癭內有卵和幼蟲,或全幼蟲,兩者各占百分比為24%和76%;第二類型全部為幼蟲;第三類型有幼蟲和蛹,或全蛹,或蛹和成蟲,三者各占百分比為4%,92%和4%;第四類型有全蛹,或蛹和成蟲,兩者各占百分比為95%和5%;第五類型有蛹和成蟲,或全成蟲,兩者各占百分比為22%和78%。按蟲癭外部形態類型,可用目測方式推估蟲隻數量,經解剖後完全正確率可達到八成,整體目測與解剖的數量相似(p<0.05),可做為防治時目測判斷之蟲癭內蟲期的綜合參考。
蟲癭數量於小葉上的分布葉面基部有52%,及中部有37%,端部僅占11%,其每單位葉片面積(cm2)蟲癭數為基部1.54、中部0.8、端部僅0.38。分散蟲癭與球形蟲癭葉面基部最多數占約62%及71%,其癭數量由葉柄至葉尖遞減。捲葉形蟲癭在葉面中部為最多數約54%,葉面基部次之約40%,葉面端部約6%。
刺桐釉小蜂造癭於葉面先後位置依序為,葉脈2/葉間2/葉脈1/葉間1/葉間3/主脈/葉脈3/葉間4/葉脈4/葉間5 (p<0.05)。在靠近基部的造癭順序以葉脈為優先,在葉脈/間1及2以葉脈為優先造癭。葉脈/間3、4、5部位,則 以葉間先造癭。

The morphology of galls for Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim can be divided into 5 types according to its sequence of maturation (from ova to imago) and appearance which have the following 3 kinds of judgment standards. First, the color of protrusion on foliar surface will be changed from pale green into olivine; Second, dark dot (zooecium; i.e, insect compartment); and third, the peripheral color around the dot will be also changed from olivine into brown. Type I Group Gall has the internal ova and larvae (or completely larvae) with a ratio of 24% and 76% respectively. Type II is entirely the larvae. Type III has larvae and pupa, or completely pupa, or pupa and imago; the ratio is 4%, 92%, and 4%. Type IV has completely pupa, or pupa and imago; the ratio is 95% and 5% respectively. And, Type V has pupa and imago, or completely imago; the ratio is 22% and 78% respectively. As the external morphological types of gall can be evaluated by visual way for the amount of insects, the exactly rate of correct evaluation is up to 80% after dissected. The amount made by overall visual inspection and evaluation is similar to the amount after dissection (P<0.05) and can be regarded as a comprehensive reference for the visual judgment to the insect phase in the gall during the action of prevention.

The distribution of galls amount on leaflet are 52% at the basal portion of foliar surface, 37% at the middle portion, and only 11% at the end portion. The amount of galls per area (cm2) of foliar surface are 1.54 at basal portion, 0.8 at middle portion, and only 0.38 at the end portion, respectively. The maximum amount of dispersed galls and spherical galls at basal foliar surface are 62% and 71%, respectively. The amount of galls descended from foliar petiole to foliar end. And, the maximum amount of galls in leaf-rolled type at the middle foliar surface is about 54% while is approximately 40% at the basal foliar surface was well as about 6% at the end of foliar surface.

The galls formation of Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim on the foliar surface has a location priority as: foliar vein (2nd) , mesophyll (2nd), foliar vein (1st), mesophyll (1st), mesophyll (3rd), midrib, foliar vein (3rd), foliar vein Mesophyll (5th) (P<0.05). The priority of galls formation near the basal portion of leaf is preferable at foliar vein; foliar vein is the predominant site for galls formation at foliar vein (1st & 2nd) and mesophyll (1st & 2nd), and inter-veins is the predominant sites for galls formation at (3rd , 4th, &5th ) and mesophyll (3rd , 4th, &5th ).



摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
謝 辭 ii
目 錄 iv
表目錄 vii
第一章前 言 1
第二章文獻回顧 3
2.1 刺桐描述 3
2.2 刺桐釉小蜂發生地點 4
2.3 刺桐釉小蜂的型態特徵 4
2.4 刺桐釉小蜂的生態習性 5
2.5 蟲癭的形成過程 5
2.5.1 分散蟲癭 6
2.5.2 捲葉形蟲癭 6
2.5.3 肥厚葉形蟲癭 6
2.5.4 球形蟲癭 6
2.5.5 粗柄形蟲癭 6
2.5.6 嫩枝腫大形蟲癭 6
2.5.7 花蕾腫大形蟲癭 7
2.6 蟲癭造癭位置 7
2.7 刺桐釉小蜂危害及判定 9
2.7.1 危害程度第一期 9
2.7.2 危害程度第二期 9
2.7.3 危害程度第三期 9
2.7.4 危害程度第四期 9
2.8 刺桐釉小蜂目前防治方法 10
2.8.1 物理防治 10
2.8.2 化學防治 10
2.8.3 生物防治 11
第三章材料與方法 13
3.1 調查地點位置 13
3.2 鄰近自然資源 13
3.2.1 四草濕地 13
3.2.2 四草濕地內植物資源 13
3.3 調查樣區 14
3.4 蟲癭外部型態 15
3.4.1 試驗方法 15
3.5 葉面偏好試驗 17
3.5.1 區域分布 17
3.5.2 試驗方法 18
3.5.3 解剖目測 18
3.5.4 面積測定 20
3.6 脈上及脈間分布 21
3.6.1 試驗方法 21
3.7 造癭先後位置 22
3.7.1 試驗方法 22
第四章結果 23
4.1 蟲癭外部型態 23
4.2 葉面偏好試驗 26
4.2.1 目測檢驗 26
4.2.2 區域分布 28
4.2.3 脈上及脈間分布 30
4.3 刺桐釉小蜂造癭先後位置 32
第五章討論 34
5.1 蟲癭外部型態 34
5.2 葉面偏好試驗 36
5.3 造癭先後位置 37
參考文獻 38

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