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研究生:蔡坤錚
研究生(外文):Tsai, Kun-Chen
論文名稱:資源與多雌競爭對尼泊爾埋葬蟲(Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope)(Coleoptera: Silphidae)繁殖成效之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of resource and female competition on reproductive success of Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope (Coleoptera: Silphidae)
指導教授:黃文伯黃文伯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwang, Wenbe
口試委員:蕭旭峰張原謀
口試委員(外文):Shiao, Shiuh-FengChang, Yuan-Mou
口試日期:2014-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南大學
系所名稱:生態科學與技術學系環境生態碩士在職專班
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:Nicrophorus海拔體型大小繁殖成效多雌競爭親緣辨識
外文關鍵詞:Nicrophorusaltitudebody sizereproductive successfemale competitionkin recognition
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本文探討台灣中部尼泊爾埋葬蟲(Nicrophorus nepalensis)野外族群密度及體型大小與海拔高度的關係、鼠屍資源大小及親代參與撫育狀況對子代數目的影響,以及多雌競爭對尼泊爾埋葬蟲繁殖成效之影響。
分別於2010年3月13日到2010年5月8日在嘉義梅山海拔高度1100 m處,2010年5月1日到2010年6月1日在阿里山海拔高度1300 m至1600 m處設置誘餌掉落式陷阱捕捉埋葬蟲,共捕獲551隻活體尼泊爾埋葬蟲。由海拔高度1100 m至1600 m,尼泊爾埋葬蟲數量與海拔高度成正相關,且海拔高度愈高尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體愈大;雌、雄個體體型則在海拔高度1300 m及1600 m處雌蟲的前胸背板寬度顯著較雄蟲大。
資源對尼泊爾埋葬蟲繁殖行為影響關係實驗中顯示雌蟲在較大鼠屍組(32.71 ± 1.48 g) 上所產出的卵數顯著多於較小鼠屍組(20.11 ± 1.77 g),而三齡幼蟲離巢前雄蟲親代離開屍球的組數顯著大於雌蟲親代;大部分雌雄雙親共同撫育的子代三齡幼蟲數量及成蟲數量皆顯著多於單親撫育的後代數量,唯較大鼠屍上三齡幼蟲數量在不同親代撫育狀況下並無顯著差異。
在尼泊爾埋葬蟲多雌競爭實驗中分為四組,為單一交配過雌蟲遭遇其他競爭資源的雌蟲:小鼠屍組為小鼠屍體(24.79 ± 0.36 g)、單一交配過之雌蟲;大鼠屍組為大鼠屍體(148.89 ± 12.41 g)單一交配過之雌蟲;同親源組為小鼠屍體(23.85 ± 1.28 g)兩隻同親緣雌蟲,其中一隻交配過;異親源組為小鼠屍體(25.97 ± 1.98 g)兩隻無親緣關係雌蟲,其中一隻交配過。實驗結果顯示大鼠屍組及同親緣組的卵數目顯著較多,但大鼠屍組的三齡幼蟲數目顯著高於同親緣組與異親緣組;三齡幼蟲質量則大鼠屍組顯著高於他組、同親緣組顯著低於他組;蛹質量和子代前胸背板寬度的部分同親緣組顯著小於他組,繁殖後同親源組兩隻雌蟲同時存活的機率明顯高於異親源組,且在三齡幼蟲離巢準備鑽入土中化蛹時異親緣組都只剩一隻雌蟲在鼠屍上,顯示尼泊爾埋葬蟲對同性成蟲具有親緣辨識能力。

This research is investigating the relationship between altitude to wild population density and body size; influence of the offspring number by the size of mouse corpse and the condition of parents’ tending; and the effect of female competition on reproductive success of Nicrophorus nepalensis.
This research have set the bait pitfall traps respectively at the height of 1100 m from 2010/03/13 to 2010/05/08 and the height of 1300 m to 1600 m from 2010/05/01 to 2010/06/01. Totally 551 Nicrophorus nepalensis been cought. The size of the Nicrophorus nepalensis is positive related to the height, the size of the Nicrophorus nepalensis is bigger at higher elevation And the female’s pronotum width is significantly bigger the the male’s pronotum from height 1300 m to 1600 m.
The experiment of the influence of resource to Nicrophorus nepalensis’s offspring number showed, the number of eggs that female laid on the group of bigger size mouse carcass (32.71 ± 1.48g) is significantly more then on the group of smaller size mouse carcass (20.11 ± 1.77g). The number of male parent leave the mouse carcass ball before the third instar larvae leave the nest is significantly more than the number of female parent. The only insignificantly different if the number of third instar larvae on bigger size rat carcass.
The experiment of female competition divided to four groups, control group I is smaller corpse size (24.79 ± 0.36g) single-mated female; control group II is bigger corpse size(148,89 ± 12.41g) single-mated female; same parents group is smaller corpse size(23.85 ± 1.28g) with two kinship female and one of them was mated; different parents group is smaller corpse size(25.97 ± 1.98g) with two non-kinship female and one of them was mated.
The result showed that the number of eggs of bigger corpse size group and same parents group are significantly more than the others, but the bigger corpse size group’s number of third instar larvae is significantly more than others; the smaller corpse size group’s quality of pupal and offspring’s pronotum is significantly smaller than others; the survival probability of same kinship group is significantly higher than others, and while the third instar larvae is ready to leave the nest, all of the different parents group only have one female parent left on the corpse, this shows the Nicrophorus nepalensis have identification ability of relative.

中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
一、前言 1
二、前人研究 3
三、材料與方法 7
1.野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體採集 7
1.1海拔高度對捕獲野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體數量之影響 8
1.2海拔高度對捕獲野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體大小之影響 8
1.3兩性的體型差異 8
2.資源對尼泊爾埋葬蟲繁殖行為的影響關係 9
2.1實驗蟲體飼育 9
2.2資源與雌蟲產卵數目調控之關係 11
1鼠屍大小對雌蟲產卵數目的影響 11
2雌雄親代離巢狀況 12
3親代參與撫育對三齡幼蟲數量的影響 12
4親代參與撫育對子代成蟲數量的影響 12
5三齡幼蟲質量與蛹質量之比較 12
3.尼泊爾埋葬蟲多雌競爭對子代數目的影響 14
3.1多雌競爭對單親產卵數量之影響 15
3.2多雌競爭對三齡幼蟲數量之影響 15
3.3多雌競爭對三齡幼蟲質量之影響 15
3.4多雌競爭對蛹質量之影響 15
3.5多雌競爭對子代體型之影響 16
3.6繁殖後雌蟲存活狀態 16
3.7子代離巢後雌蟲所在位置 16
4.統計分析方法 17
四、研究結果 18
1.海拔高度對野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體分佈之影響 18
1.1海拔高度對捕獲野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體數量之影響 18
1.2海拔高度對捕獲野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體大小之影響 19
1.3兩性的體型差異 20
2.資源對尼泊爾埋葬蟲繁殖行為的影響關係 21
2.1鼠屍大小對雌蟲產卵數目的影響 21
2.2雌雄親代離巢狀態 22
2.3親代參與撫育對三齡幼蟲數量的影響 25
2.4親代參與撫育對子代成蟲數量的影響 27
2.5三齡幼蟲質量與蛹質量之比較 29
3.尼泊爾埋葬蟲多雌競爭對子代數目的影響 30
3.1多雌競爭對單親產卵數量之影響 30
3.2多雌競爭對三齡幼蟲數量之影響 31
3.3多雌競爭對三齡幼蟲質量之影響 32
3.4多雌競爭對蛹質量之影響 33
3.5多雌競爭對子代體型之影響 34
3.6繁殖後雌蟲存活狀態 35
3.7子代離巢後雌蟲所在位置 36
五、討論 37
1.海拔高度對野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體分佈之影響 37
2.資源對尼泊爾埋葬蟲繁殖行為的影響 39
2.1鼠屍大小對產卵數目的影響 39
2.2雌雄親代離巢狀況與子代數量的關係 39
2.3三齡幼蟲質量與蛹質量之比較 40
3.尼泊爾埋葬蟲多雌競爭對子代數目的影響 41
六、參考文獻 43

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