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研究生:蔡仲茵
研究生(外文):Chung-Yin Tsai
論文名稱:北高地區大學生對國語和臺語之語言態度調查
論文名稱(外文):Language Attitudes toward Mandarin and Taiwanese in Taipei and Kaohsiung Metropolitan Areas
指導教授:蘇席瑤蘇席瑤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsi-Yao Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:153
中文關鍵詞:語言態度語言使用區域因素意識形態
外文關鍵詞:language attitudeslanguage useregional factorlanguage ideology
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本研究旨在探討台北及高雄都會區的大學生對國語和臺語之語言態度。過去文獻中關於語言態度的研究已有一般性的討論(e.g. Lin 1987;Baran 2004),本文則將過去鮮少探討的區域因素納入分析中,目的在討論北、高兩大都會區如何評價國語及臺語。
本研究以施作問卷方式蒐集數據。參與調查者為臺北及高雄都會區的大學生, 155份有效問卷中,84份來自臺北、71份來自高雄。參與本研究的受試者須自評語言能力及臺語使用頻率,回答語言態度相關問題,並表達對國語及臺語的印象。
問卷結果發現,高雄受試者的臺語程度明顯優於臺北受試者。在與不同對象、處於不同地點及討論不同話題時的語言使用上,臺北受試者使用臺語的頻率低於高雄受試者。統計數據並指出,臺北受試者使用臺語的原因在於親疏關係,高雄受試者使用臺語的原因則取決於語境。大體而言,全體受試者的臺語使用程度相當低,顯示在生活各方面,國語的使用已逐漸取代臺語。
語言態度相關問題主要探討受試者對於臺語的評價。概括而言,全體受試者說臺語之因源自於整合性動機(integrative motivation)及工具性動機(instrumental motivation)。而研究結果發現,受試者在態度或信念的表達上,與實際行為表現有所差距。此現象或可歸因於個人語言使用習慣及對臺語的觀感。在統計結果中,高雄受試者對臺語的評價比臺北受試者持有更多的正面態度。
有關對國語及臺語的印象,受試者普遍認為國語比臺語有價值、有活力及較不複雜。其中,高雄受試者對於臺語持有較正面的觀感。統計數據顯現,此現象與北高地區受試者的社會語言背景及文化概念有所關連。
本問卷調查結果顯示,語言使用、語言態度及語言觀感三者互有關連。語言使用和語言態度不一定相符,此現象可能跟社會變遷有關。此外,地區因素確實造成不同的語言評價。在臺北和高雄受試者對國語和臺語的不同評價中,反映出兩區在歷史發展及社會語言背景的不同。語言的概念深植於社會經驗中,因此刻版印象和語言就產生特定連結。這些現象可在本研究調查中發現。
本文將語言使用、語言觀感及區域因素納入國語和臺語的語言態度調查中,期能深入討論並對於語言態度議題有所助益。
This study investigates language attitudes toward Mandarin and Taiwanese in Taipei and Kaohsiung metropolitan areas through questionnaires. Earlier studies have provided general accounts on language attitudes (Lin, 1987, Baran, 2004), but the present study incorporates regional factors—a commonly noted factor that is rarely analyzed systematically—into the analysis. The thesis is aimed at looking into how Mandarin and Taiwanese are evaluated in the two target areas.
The study has collected data by means of questionnaires. Subjects participated in the survey were composed of college students from universities of Taipei and Kaohsiung. 155 valid questionnaires were acquired, with 81 Taipei subjects and 74 Kaohsiung respondents. The participants were asked to provide self-reported answers on language use, judge language attitude-related statements, and express their impressions of Mandarin and Taiwanese on bipolar attributes.
The subjects’ reported language use show that Kaohsiung respondents’ Taiwanese proficiency is significantly higher than their northern counter parts. With regard to the frequency of speaking Taiwanese with different interlocutors, in different locations and about different topics, Taipei subjects’ use of Taiwanese is lower than that of their peers. Besides, it is found that Taipei students’ use of Taiwanese varies in the dimension of intimacy, while Kaohsiung students speak Taiwanese based on contexts. On the whole, all the subjects showed quite a low use of Taiwanese, which suggests that it is being replaced by Mandarin in all aspects of people’s life.
The language attitude-related statements were mainly designed to explore subjects’ evaluation of Taiwanese. Generally speaking, the sample population was integratively and instrumentally motived to speak Taiwanese. However, there is a contrast between their attitudes/beliefs and reported behaviors. Possible reasons may be due to people’s language use and social images of Taiwanese. When regional differences are taken into consideration, it is observed that Kaohsiung subjects held more positive attitudes toward Taiwanese.
As for the stereotypical impressions of Mandarin and Taiwanese, Mandarin was evaluated to be more valuable, more potent, and less complex than Taiwanese. The comparison of the ratings derived from the two target areas suggests that Kaohsiung respondents expressed more positive images of Taiwanese. This may be associated with the sociolinguistic background and cultural concepts of the North and the South.
The questionnaire reveals that language use, language attitudes, and social images of the two languages interact with each other. It is found that language use does not coincide with language attitudes, and this may be linked with social change. Besides, regional differences do have an impact on people’s evaluations. Taipei and Kaohsiung are distinct in their historical development and sociolinguistic background, and the contrast seems to be parallel with the social images of Mandarin and Taiwanese. People’s conceptualization of language is rooted in social experience, with stereotypical linkage with certain features and a linguistic variety. This is observed in how they evaluated Mandarin and Taiwanese in the survey.
The study has attempted to investigate language attitudes toward Mandarin and Taiwanese by incorporating language use, social images of languages, as well as regional factors. It is hoped that this thesis could provide an in-depth discussion and shed some lights on the issues of language attitudes.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents viii
List of Tables xii
List of Figures xiv
Chapter 1 1
Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Background 2
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Significance of the Thesis 5
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 6
Chapter 2 8
Literature Review 8
2.1 Overview of Attitudes 8
2.1.1 Definition of Attitudes 8
2.1.2 Language Attitudes 9
2.1.3 Dimensions for Assessing Language Attitudes and Language Preference Patterns 12
2.1.4 Approaches of Language Attitudes 17
2.1.5 Language Attitudes in Taiwan 20
2.1.6 Stereotyped Attitudes: A Case Study of English Dialects 22
2.2 Language Use, Identity, and Symbolic Power 24
2.2.1 Symbolic Power 24
2.2.2 Language Use and Identity 28
2.2.3 Taiwanese Identity 31
2.2.4 Attitudes and Perceptions of Identity: A Study in Brittany 33
2.3 Language in Taiwan 36
2.3.1 The National Language Policy and Language Ideology 36
2.3.2 Mother Tongue Language Policy 38
2.3.3 Language Practice and Language Ideologies in Taiwan 40
Chapter 3 43
Methodology 43
3.1 Sociolinguistic Background of Taipei and Kaohsiung 43
3.2 Data Collection: Participants 44
3.3 Questionnaire Design 46
3.3.1 Personal Background 47
3.3.2 Language Use 47
3.3.3 Language Attitude-Related Statements 48
3.3.3.1 Motivations of Speaking Mandarin and Taiwanese 48
3.3.3.2 Opinions about Taiwanese 49
3.3.3.3 Attitudes toward Language Education and Policy 52
3.3.4 Stereotypical Impressions of Mandarin and Taiwanese 54
3.4 Methods of Data Analysis 55
3.4.1 Language Use: Language Proficiency and Use of Taiwanese 55
3.4.2 Language Motivations of Speaking Mandarin and Taiwanese 55
3.4.3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Opinions about Taiwanese 57
3.4.4 Regional Differences Regarding Attitudes toward Taiwanese 63
3.4.5 Attitudes toward Language Education and Policy 63
3.4.6 Stereotypical Impressions of Mandarin and Taiwanese 64
Chapter 4 66
Results and Analyses I: Language Use 66
4.1 Language Proficiency in Mandarin and Taiwanese 66
4.2 Taiwanese-Frequency: Interlocutors 67
4.3 Taiwanese-Frequency: Locations 69
4.4 Taiwanese-Frequency: Topics 72
Chapter 5 75
Results and Analyses II: Language Attitudes and Stereotypical Impressions 75
5.1 Motivations of Using Mandarin and Taiwanese 75
5.1.1 Overall Observation 77
5.1.2 Comparison of Motivations 78
5.1.3 Comparison of Languages 79
5.1.4 Comparison between the Current Study and Chan’s (1994) Study 80
5.2 Overall Performance 82
5.2.1 Integrative 82
5.2.1.1 Transmission 82
5.2.1.2 Symbol of Identity 84
5.2.1.3 Self-Expressiveness 86
5.2.1.4 Marker of Solidarity 87
5.2.1.5 Summary 89
5.2.2 Instrumental 89
5.2.2.1 Marker of Social Status 90
5.2.2.2 Tool of Communication 90
5.2.2.3 Tool of Upward Mobility 92
5.2.2.4 Summary 93
5.2.3 Language Functions on a Integrative-Instrumental Continuum 93
5.3 Regional Differences Regarding Attitudes toward Taiwanese 95
5.3.1 Transmission 96
5.3.2 Symbol of Identity 97
5.3.3 Self-Expressiveness 98
5.3.4 Marker of Solidarity 98
5.3.5 Tool of Communication 99
5.3.6 Tool of Upward Mobility 99
5.3.7 Standard Language Ideology 100
5.3.8 Summary 101
5.4 Issues about Language Education 101
5.4.1 Language Comparison: Taiwanese and Mandarin 101
5.4.2 Issues Related to Taiwanese Education: the North vs. the South 104
5.4.3 Comparison in Regions: Chi-square Test 105
5.5 Correlation of Language Use and language Attitudes 107
5.6 Stereotypical Impressions of Mandarin and Taiwanese 109
5.6.1 Dimension of “Value” 112
5.6.2 Dimension of “Potency” 115
5.6.3 Dimension of “Activity” 116
5.6.4 Dimension of “Complexity” 118
5.6.5 Summary 120
Chapter 6 123
General Discussion 123
6.1 Language Use 123
6.2 Language Attitudes 125
6.3 Stereotypical Impressions of Mandarin and Taiwanese 128
6.3.1 Dimension of “Value” 128
6.3.2 Dimension of “Potency” 130
6.3.3 Dimension of “Activity” 131
6.3.4 Dimension of “Complexity” 132
6.3.5 Implications of the Findings 133
Chapter 7 134
Conclusion 134
7.1 Summary of the Major Findings 134
7.2 Summarized Answers to Research Questions 139
7.3 Directions for Future Research 140
References 142
Appendix 1. Questionnaire 147
Appendix 2. Subjects’ Responses in Three Types of Comments 152


List of Tables
Table 3.1. Categorization of Opinions about Taiwanese 52
Table 3.2. Classification of Language Attitude-Related Statements along the Intrinsic-Extrinsic Orientation 60
Table 3.3. Scoring Mapping of the 12 Attributes 65
Table 4.1. Self-Reported Language Proficiency in Mandarin and Taiwanese 66
Table 4.2. Subjects’ Ratings of Use of Taiwanese with Fourteen Subcategories of Interlocutors 68
Table 4.3. Subjects’ Ratings of Use of Taiwanese with Six Categories of Interlocutors 68
Table 4.4. Subjects’ Ratings of Their Use of Taiwanese in 7 Different Locations 70
Table 4.5. Subjects’ Ratings of Their Taiwanese-Frequency on Different Topics 73
Table 5.1. Item-to-Item Ratings in Two Types of Motivations 78
Table 5.2. Average Scores in Taipei Metropolitan Areas 79
Table 5.3. Average Scores in Kaohsiung Metropolitan Areas 79
Table 5.4. Subjects’ Ratings of the Two Motivations for Speaking Mandarin 79
Table 5.5. Subjects’ Ratings of the Two Motivations for Speaking Taiwanese 79
Table 5.6. Results of Statements Related to Transmission 82
Table 5.7. Results of Statements Related to Identity 84
Table 5.8. Results of Statements Related to Self-Expressiveness 86
Table 5.9. Results of Statements Related to Solidarity 87
Table 5.10. Subjects’ Responses to Statements of “Solidarity” Set 88
Table 5.11. Results of Statements Related to Social Status 90
Table 5.12. Results of Statements Related to Communication 90
Table 5.13 Subjects’ Responses to Statements of “Communication” Set 91
Table 5.14. Results of Statements Related to Upward Mobility 92
Table 5.15. Seven Sets of Statements on the Integrative-Instrumental Continuum 94
Table 5.16. Average Ratings of Each Statement 96
Table 5.17. Responses to Taiwanese, Mandarin, and English in Three Types of Comments 102
Table 5.18. Responses to Region-Related Statements in Three Types of Comments 104
Table 5.19. Subjects’ Responses to Issues Related to Language Education and Politics 106
Table 5.20. Correlation of Taiwanese proficiency and Taiwanese Attitudes 108
Table 5.21. Correlation of Taiwanese proficiency and Taiwanese Attitudes in Taipei Metropolitan Areas 109
Table 5.22. Correlation of Taiwanese proficiency and Taiwanese Attitudes in Kaohsiung Metropolitan Areas 109
Table 5.23. Stereotypical Impressions of Mandarin and Taiwanese 111
Table 5.24. Two Regional Groups’ Ratings of Their Stereotypical Impressions on Four Judgmental Dimensions 121


List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Seven-Point Semantic Differential Scale 19
Figure 5.1. Average Ratings on Five Features in “Value” Dimension 113
Figure 5.2. Average Ratings on Five Features in “Potency” Dimension 116
Figure 5.3. Average Ratings on Five Features in “Activity” Dimension 117
Figure 5.4. Average Ratings on Five Features in “Complexity” Dimension 119
Figure 5.5. Overall Ratings on Four Dimensions 121

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