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研究生:蕭漢良
研究生(外文):Han-liang Hsiao
論文名稱:觀光餐旅從業人員節能減碳素養量表發展與應用之研究
論文名稱(外文):Development and Application of the Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction Literacy Scale among Practitioners in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry
指導教授:洪久賢洪久賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeou-Shyan Horng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:人類發展與家庭學系
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:觀光餐旅節能減碳素養觀光餐旅從業人員永續觀光人才培育
外文關鍵詞:Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction (ESCR) Literacy in Tourism and Hospitality IndustryTourism and Hospitality practitionerSustainable tourismTalent Cultivation
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全球暖化是目前全世界人類所共同面臨最嚴重的環境議題,同時也影響著觀光事業的永續發展。在觀光餐旅節能減碳的研究中,從業人員扮演著重要角色,但過去尚未從觀光餐旅從業人員的素養面去探討。經營者與從業人員須對於節能減碳的相關議題和知識有系統化的瞭解,具備節能減碳的正向情緒、意願與態度,才能確實落實節能減碳的行動,以促使低碳旅遊的進行,且進而達到觀光事業永續經營的目的。
本研究的目的為建構與發展觀光餐旅從業人員節能減碳素養指標與量表,並分析不同觀光餐旅業者間節能減碳素養之差異與缺口。本研究兼採質化與量化方法進行研究,提出觀光餐旅從業人員之節能減碳素養量表指標共計30題,涵蓋7個構面:「節能減碳相關知識」、「生態學概念」、「態度與價值觀」、「敏感度」、「控制觀」、「行動意圖」與「行動策略」。本研究進行兩階段問卷施測,第一階段對象為已具有相關工作經驗的觀光餐旅科系大三與大四學生,共計453份有效問卷。預試結果用來修正問項內容、並透過探索性因素分析瞭解題項與量表構面適合性;第二階段針對觀光餐旅業從業人員,共計492份有效問卷,做為評估量表之信效度,以效化觀光餐旅節能減碳素養量表。
並且進一步分析觀光餐旅產業從業人員節能減碳素養的缺口與差異,發現「節能減碳相關知識」與「敏感度」為從業人員最為缺乏的素養認知,而在「控制觀」上認知最高;另外不同產業別上,觀光業從業人員整體素養認知最高;最後發現較年長或是工作年資較久的從業人員素養認知較高。
透過觀光餐旅從業人員節能減碳素養量表的概念化與衡量,本研究提出實務管理與應用上的建議。本研究所研發之觀光餐旅從業人員節能減碳素養量表與指標,可作為觀光永續發展與觀光餐旅節能減碳人才培育之重要參考依據。

Global warming are serious environmental issues that every individual needs to address, and these issues could have enormous impacts on the sustainable development of the tourism industry. As carbon reduction and environmental protection becomes a prevalent trend, tourism businesses should also shoulder their social responsibilities by fostering more green-minded practitioners. However, little academic attention has been paid to the practitioners’ Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction (ESCR) literacy in the tourism and hospitality industry. It is important to foster correct knowledge(cognition) to ensure a positive approach to the environment(awareness, attitude, values and fundamental care for the environment) and the motivation to achieve sustainable development.
The purpose of this study is to develop an ESCR literacy scale for practitioners and analysis the difference and gap among all practitioners in different tourism and hospitality industry. Through literature review and in-depth interviews, this study develops a preliminary framework and a literacy measuring scale. The reliability and validity of the scale were examined twice with exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, using samples collected from 453 college students majoring in tourism and hospitality and 492 tourism industry practitioners. The results show that the overall goodness-of-fit of this model is optimal. The final scale consists of 30 items under seven constructs: knowledge of ESCR issues, ecological concepts, attitudes and values, sensitivity, locus of control, action intent and action strategy. Furthermore, the study finds that “knowledge of ESCR issues” and “sensitivity” are the major shortages of literacy cognition for tourism and hospitality practitioners and have highly “locus of control”. The tourism practitioners have the highest scores in ESCR literacy among the all industries. Finally, elder practitioners or practitioners with longer working experience are higher literacy cognition.
In summary, this study shed light on the important attributes of ESCR literacy through the perspectives of practitioners. The implications of these findings for practical applications are also provided, as well as suggestions for future research.

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
目錄 v
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 xi
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
一、研究背景 1
二、研究動機 3
第二節 研究問題與目的 6
第三節 名詞解釋 7
第四節 研究流程 9

第二章 文獻探討 10
第一節 觀光餐旅節能減碳概念與研究 10
一、低碳觀光發展 10
二、觀光餐旅節能減碳 11
三、觀光餐旅碳足跡 12
四、觀光餐旅節能減碳策略 13
五、小結 16
第二節 環境素養與環境教育 16
一、環境素養 17
二、環境認知、態度與行為 19

第三節 觀光餐旅節能減碳素養 21
第四節 本章小結 24

第三章 研究設計與實施 26
第一節 研究設計 27
一、題項發展 27
二、題項精簡與內容效度 31
三、量表精煉 (探證性因素分析) 33
四、量表再次分析 (驗證性因素分析) 33
五、問卷設計 34
六、量表之應用 34
第二節 研究對象與調查方法 35
第三節 資料分析方法 36
一、項目分析 36
二、信度分析 37
三、效度分析 38
四、探索性因素分析 39
五、驗證性因素分析 40
六、變異數分析 42

第四章 研究結果 43
第一節 量表精鍊-預試階段分析 43
一、樣本特性分析 43
二、項目分析 46
三、信度分析 51
四、探索性因素分析 52
第二節 量表再次分析-模式之驗證 56
一、驗證性因素分析 58
二、修正驗證性因素分析 66
三、收斂效度與區別效度 71
四、效標關聯效度 74
第三節 模式的應用 77
一、樣本特性分析 78
二、量表構面與指標比較分析 79
三、不同產業別節能減碳素養比較分析 85
第四節 綜合討論 100
一、量表發展與測量模式品質 100
二、觀光餐旅產業從業人員節能減碳素養量表之應用 101
三、觀光餐旅從業人員節能減碳素養構面的重要性 102

第五章 結論與建議 105
第一節 結論 105
第二節 實務管理與應用建議 107
第三節 研究限制與未來研究建議 109
一、研究限制 109
二、對後續研究之建議 109

參考文獻 111
附錄1.1 預試問卷 123
附錄1.2 正式問卷 126
附錄1.3 應用問卷 129

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