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研究生:曾鈺琪
研究生(外文):Yu-Chi Tseng
論文名稱:自然連結、美感體驗與環境敏感性發展:十位都市青少年的自然經驗之紮根理論研究
論文名稱(外文):Nature connection, aesthetic experience and the development of environmental sensitivity: A grounded theory study of ten urban adolescents’ nature experiences
指導教授:王順美王順美引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:環境教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:351
中文關鍵詞:自然連結美感體驗環境敏感性都市青少年自然經驗
外文關鍵詞:nature connectionaesthetic experienceenvironmental sensitivityurban adolescentnature experience
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在既有重要生命經驗研究與環境態度調查成果中,自然經驗已被證實是培養環境敏感性的重要基礎。本文以前述研究成果為出發點提出研究問題-自然經驗中的自然連結心理現象如何促成都市青少年的環境敏感性發展?並運用紮根理論的質性方法,探討從童年到高中擁有豐富自然經驗的十位都市青少年,如何描述及詮釋與自然環境連結的心理體驗,並嘗試推論自然連結促進環境敏感性發展的可能方式。本研究以深度個人訪談為主要的資料收集方式,輔以學生心得及研究者之田野筆記,並運用質性資料分析軟體協助建構概念與詮釋架構,最後採用紮根理論方法之評鑑標準進行研究品質的檢核。
本研究發現在持續的自然經驗中所體驗到的自然連結感,特別是美感,是發展環境敏感性的重要關鍵。自然連結感是一種個人與自然直接互動而逐漸融入周遭環境的心理過程,會表現為對自然環境的多元感官體驗、以及隨著自然情境產生的各種有關自我與環境的正負向情緒變化,並在離開自然後產生對環境的情感連帶。美感則是一種透過視覺與觸覺等感官之運用,並因自然環境的新奇事物、遼闊視野、豐富及快速變化的自然現象而引發的驚嘆和愉快等正向心理感受。美感體驗因能提供理想的環境標準而讓個人有覺察環境品質變化的能力,也讓個人因建構新的自然價值而促成環境敏感性的發展。
未來研究應持續驗證本文初步提出的環境敏感性發展方式,並持續深化自然連結與美感等心理現象的研究。環境教育的規劃也可運用營造自然連結感的三個條件,在原始度較高的自然環境裡,以獨處或小團體的形式進行適合個人能力的教育活動,以協助學習者創造高強度的自然連結感與美感,進而提升環境敏感性的發展。

Based on the results of existing significant life experience studies and environmental attitude surveys, the purpose of this research was to explore how nature connection could promote urban adolescents’ environmental sensitivity. We explored nature experiences from ten urban adolescents by in-depth interviews, student journals and researcher’s field notes. We then used grounded theory and Atlas. ti software to analyze data, and adopted criteria of grounded theory to evaluate the research quality. We found that the experiences of nature connection, especially aesthetic experiences were the key to promote environmental sensitivity. Nature connection was a psychological process when individual directly interacted with and gradually immersed in natural environments. Nature connection could represent as multiple sensations, various and changeable emotions toward self and environments as well as affective bond with nature after leaving the environment. Aesthetic experiences were positive and ineffable emotional experiences based on sensations and caused by novelty, extent, abundant and changeable views in nature. We also inferred that aesthetic experiences could cultivate environmental sensitivity because it could help individual not only build the competence to evaluate environmental quality but also create personal values which were attached to nature. However, it is necessary to keep verifying the initial concepts of nature connection, aesthetic experience and the framework that interpret the development of environmental sensitivity in future studies. For environmental education, we suggest that educators can use three contextual conditions to help learners experience strong nature connection and aesthetic experiences to promote environmental sensitivity.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
謝誌 iii
目次 v
表次 vii
圖次 viii
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與研究目的 1
第二節 研究問題與主要概念 9
第二章 文獻回顧 18
第一節 自然經驗與環境態度及行為的關連 21
第二節 重要生命經驗研究提供的線索 28
第三節 與自然環境相關的心理現象研究 38
第四節 環境敏感度 54
本章文獻綜述 68
第三章 研究方法 72
第一節 研究典範與取徑 72
第二節 資料收集方法與資料類型 82
第三節 資料分析 97
第四節 研究進程 109
第四章 追尋自然連結的研究旅程 115
第一節 研究場域及研究參與者簡介 117
第二節 各教育階段的自然經驗 128
第五章 研究結果 137
第一節 自然連結經驗與營造條件 140
第二節 與自然相繫…自然連結的特殊心理現象 163
第三節 情感層次的自然連結 184
第四節 美感體驗與環境敏感性 204
第六章 討論 225
第一節 自然連結現象相關心理學研究 228
第二節 自然連結現象的感官與情感特徵 236
第三節 環境敏感性的概念再建構 250
第四節 美感體驗-發展環境敏感性的關鍵 261
第六章總結 275
第七章 結論 279
參考文獻 296
附錄 311

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