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研究生:孔立哲
研究生(外文):Joseph Breed
論文名稱:台美臉書溝通模式對比分析
論文名稱(外文):A Comparative Analysis of Taiwanese and American Communication on Facebook
指導教授:謝佳玲謝佳玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsieh Chia-Ling
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:華語文教學系
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:跨文化網路溝通華語教學顏面威脅語用臉書
外文關鍵詞:cross-cultural online communicationChinese teachingface threatspragmaticsFacebook
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近年來網絡溝通越來越普遍,與異國人士溝通也越來越方便。然而,即使對話者使用相同的語言,仍然必須了解對方文化圈的溝通模式,才能進行成功的溝通。目前已有不少研究指出美國以及東方文化之差別;主要發現為東方文化較多透過人際關係定義自我、較多執行合作性的行為、且傾向使用較為間接的溝通模式(Ma, 1996;Gao, 1998;Chang, 1999;Yang, 2009;許,1985;楊,1995);而美國文化透過個體的特徵定義自我,且使用較為直接的溝通模式(Yu, 2005;Markus與Kitayama, 1991;Kanagawa, Cross與Markus,2001)。然而,許多研究依靠問卷以及其他非自然語料,且較少分析閒聊的溝通習慣。本研究目的為彌補此缺失,以來自社交網站臉書之語料分析台灣人以及美國人的溝通文化之異同。
筆者收集到133個台灣以及美國臉書使用者的近況更新以及針對更新之回應當語料,將近況更新及回應分類統計,再分析兩組數據所透露的文化異同。研究結果發現,台灣組以及美國組數據大致相似,僅有美國組較多針對社會議題發表意見、較多提出自己生活之正面事件以及自己的動作;而台灣組較多討論自己的生活哲理、生活中之負面事件以及自己遇到的事件。在兩組更新收到的回應中,發表意見的回應比其他類型多,但美國組收到的比例比台灣組更多,且台灣組收到較多表示親近感的回應。此結果顯示,美國人比台灣人願意忍受積極顏面威脅,但兩組對消極顏面威脅的容忍度無明顯差異。另外,兩組皆出現相似的間接性及合作性傾向。
在教學應用部分,本文提供一項粗略的教案,使用討論、觀察以及練習的方法,提高華語學習者對台灣溝通文化的意識,並讓學習者更理解如何在台灣社會中進行恰當、禮貌的人際溝通。
Online communication has made it far easier for people from different countries to communicate. However, for cross-cultural communication to be successful, interlocutors must have adequate cultural knowledge in addition to being able to speak the same language. Many studies have already compared the cultural differences between Westerners and East Asians, and most of these have found that East Asian cultures are more indirect, more cooperative and define self through relationships (Ma, 1996; Gao, 1998; Chang, 1999; Yang, 2009; Xu, 1985; Yang, 1995), while Western cultures are more direct and define self through innate characteristics (Yu, 2005; Markus and Kitayama, 1991; Kanagawa, Cross and Markus, 2001). However, this research frequently does not use naturally occurring language, and rarely focuses on casual conversation.
This study aims to use data collected from the social network website Facebook to analyze the differences between how Taiwanese and Americans conduct casual conversation. The author collected status updates and responses to those updates from the Facebook webpages of 133 Taiwanese and Americans. The updates and comments were sorted according to topic and the gaps between the two groups were analyzed to determine the differences between the two cultures they implied. The results show that Taiwanese and American communication on Facebook is similar overall, though Americans post more opinions about social issues, more positive updates about their lives, and more updates about their actions. Taiwanese post more philosophical updates, more updates about negative events in their lives and more updates about things that happened to them. Both groups’ comments expressed agreeing opinions more than any other behavior, but Americans tended to express more opinions while Taiwanese expressed more positive feelings about the poster. These results show that Americans have a higher tolerance for positive face threats than Taiwanese, but both groups have a similar tolerance for negative face threats. Both groups also show a similar tendency to be cooperative and indirect.
Finally, the author critiqued the presentation of casual Chinese-language conversation in three popular Chinese textbooks, and provided an outline for a lesson plan that uses brainstorming, exposing students to target language input and discussion to raise students’ awareness of cultural differences.
目錄……………………………………………………………….……………………iv
表目錄……………………………………………………..……….…………………..vi
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………………vii
第一章 導論……………………………………………...……………………………...1
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………………………………..1
第二節 研究目的與問題…………………………………………………………..2
第三節 研究範圍與名詞定義……………………………………………………..3
第四節 本文架構………………………………………………………………......4
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………………………..6
第一節 禮貌概論理論……………………………………………………………..6
一、禮貌原則………………………………………………………………...6
二、面子保全論……………………………………………………………...7
第二節 中美溝通特性對比………………………………………………………..8
一、華語溝通特性…………………………………………………………...8
二、英語溝通特性………………………………………………………….10
三、小結…………………………………………………………………….11
第三節 自我形象研究……………………………………………………………11
一、東西方自我形象……………………………………………………….11
二、臉書上的自我形象…………………………………………………….15
第四節 小結………………………………………………………………………18
第三章 研究方法………………………………………………………………………19
第一節 臉書的歷史與功能………………………………………………………19
第二節 語料收集………………………………………………………………....22
一、研究對象…………………………………………………………….....22
二、收集方法…………………………………………………………….....23
第四章 資料分析………………………………………………………………………24
第一節 語料分類…………………………………………………………………24
一、更新分類……………………………………………………………….26
二、各更新分類的比較…………………………………………………….49
三、回應分類……………………………………………………………….53
第二節 結果分析……………………………………………………………........64
一、主要分類……………………………………………………………….64
二、次分類………………………………………………………………….68
三、特殊次分類…………………………………………………………….73
四、讚……………………………………………………………………….77
五、回應…………………………………………………………………….85
六、回應分類……………………………………………………………….89
第三節 小結………………………………………………………………………99
第五章 結果討論…………………………………………………………………......101
第一節 話題偏好……………………………………………………………......101
第二節 自我形象……………………………………………………………......101
一、台美兩組的相似之處………………………………………………...101
二、台美兩組的相異之處………………………………………………...102
第三節 交際策略……………………………………………………………......104
一、美國組尋求較多意見共通性……………………………….………..104
二、台灣組尋求較多人際親近感…………………………………….......105
三、美國人對積極顏面威脅容忍度較高…………………………….......107
四、台美兩組對消極顏面威脅容忍度相似.………………………..........109
五、台美兩組在其他方面之相似性……….………………………..........110
第四節 小結……………………………………………………………...….......111
第六章 教學應用……………………………………………………………...….......113
第一節 語用教學………………………………………………………...….......113
第二節 現行教材檢視…………………………………………………...….......114
第三節 教學建議與設計………………………………………………...….......117
一、熱身活動………….……………………………………………..........117
二、提供輸入………….……………………………………………..........118
三、討論………….…………………………………………………..........119
四、練習………….…………………………………………………..........123
第四節 小結……………………………………………………………...….......124
第七章 研究限制與展望……………………………………………………...….......125
參考書目……………………………………………………………………...….…...127

英文書目
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11. Chang, H.-C. (1999). The ‘well-defined’ is ‘ambiguous’- Indeterminacy in Chinese conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 31, 535-556.
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中文書目
1. 范懿文、方毓賢、吳政杰、劉昌輝(2011)。虛擬社群持續參與因素之探討。電子商務學報,13(2),413-434。
2. 陸洛(民92)。人我關係之界定—折衷自我的現身。本土心理學研究,20,139-207。
3. 黃光國(民84)。儒家價值觀的現代轉化:理論分析與實徵研究。本土心理學研究,3,276-338。
4. 蔣昕(民國99)。臉書上的一張臉譜:社交網站上的劃界與展演(未出版之碩士論文)。國立清華大學社會學研究所,新竹。
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