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研究生:福德義
論文名稱:影響華語者時間觀的可能因素:文字與文化
論文名稱(外文):Two Possible Factors that Influence how Chinese Speakers Think about Time: Direction of Print and Culture
指導教授:陳振宇陳振宇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn-Yeu Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:華語文教學系
學門:人文學門
學類:中國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:語言相對論概念隱喻文字系統文化時間空間
外文關鍵詞:Linguistic relativityConceptual metaphorsWriting systemCultureTimeSpace
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華語者是用水平還是垂直的方式來思考時間呢?閱讀和寫作的經驗以及文化背景對時間認知的影響又如何?雖然極端的語言相對論已經被淘汰,不過研究發現,人的母語塑造習慣性的思維。中文時空隱喻對於認知的影響的研究產生不一的結果,因此我們要介紹新的資料,來解釋文字的書寫方式和文化的角色,兩種可能混淆實驗結果的因素。本研究要探討的是時空隱喻並非是唯一影響到時間認知的因素,而且,即時不同版本和文化的經驗是否影響到時間的認知。我們進行三個實驗,來研究排版方式和文化是否對時間的思維有影響。我們預計不同排版方式(水平和垂直)和不同的文化(西方和東方)會影響到受試者的偏向。實驗一和實驗二檢視說漢語者的時間觀是否與文字的書寫方向有關,接觸橫排與直排文字的經驗是否影響到時間觀。實驗採用時間判斷作業和情境促發的手段來操弄實驗參與者閱讀橫排與直排文字的經驗。實驗結果發現受試者顯示整體直向偏向,而且直向促發擴大直向常態效果,橫向促發反而減少直向常態效果。實驗二為實驗一的複製,結果發現,受試者此次沒有顯示整體直向偏向,不過直向促發還是擴大直向常態效果,橫向促發一樣減少直向常態效果。實驗三檢視說漢語者的時間觀是否與文化有關,接觸西方與東方影片的經驗是否影響到時間觀。實驗三亦採用時間判斷作業並利用情境促發的手段來操弄實驗參與者看西方與東方影片的經驗。結果發現,受試者顯示整體直向偏向,而且西方促發擴大直向常態效果。總括而言,從三個實驗只有兩個顯示直向常態效果,表示時空隱喻並不是影響時間認知的決定因素,排版方式和文化亦為主要因素之一。
In recent years the linguistic relativity theory has experienced a revival, and although the strong version of the linguistic theory has been rejected, there is unignorable evidence that language does indeed play a role in how we conceptualize the world around us. The domain of time and how spatiotemporal metaphors shape our conception in particular, have come under scrutiny. Initial research (Boroditsky, 2001) has allegedly produced clear results in favor of this assumption; however, follow-up studies (Chen, 2007; January & Kako, 2007; Tse & Altarriba, 2008) were unable to replicate these findings. A further refinement of the temporal judgment paradigm (Fuhrman et al., 2011) supported the initial claim and tried to disentangle the influence of spatiotemporal metaphors from writing direction. However, a follow up-study by Chen & O'Seaghdha (2013) challenges this view, suggesting only a limited influence of spatiotemporal metaphors on temporal cognition. Hence, the purpose of this research is to examine the role of spatiotemporal metaphors in mental representations of time, and investigate the influence of writing direction and culture on temporal cognition. In experiments 1 and 2, Chinese-speaking participants were presented with a reading comprehension task with either horizontally or vertically arranged texts. Immediately after this contextual priming task, participants performed a temporal judgment task. Results of experiment 1 show an overall vertical bias, an increase of the vertical bias after a vertical prime and a neutralization of the overall vertical bias after a horizontal prime. Results of experiment 2 do not show an overall vertical bias, however similar to experiment 1, the vertical bias is increased after a vertical prime and reduced after a horizontal prime. In experiment 3, Chinese-speaking participants were presented a short movie with either typically western or eastern images. Immediately after this priming task, participants performed the same temporal judgment task as in experiments 1 and 2. Participants show an overall vertical bias and an increase of this vertical bias after a western prime. These findings suggest that spatiotemporal metaphors are not a decisive factor in the shaping of our temporal cognition, and in fact, experience with different reading directions as well as different cultural backgrounds strongly influence how we perceive time.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iv
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究問題與假設 4
第二章 文獻探討 5
第一節 語言和認知 5
第二節  隱喻和認知 11
第三節  時空隱喻和認知 15
第四節 閱讀方向和時間認知 23
第五節 文化和認知 28
第三章 實驗 31
第一節 實驗一和實驗二 31
一、 目的 31
二、 方法 32
三、 實驗一結果 35
四、 結果實驗二 37
五、 實驗一和實驗二合併 38
第二節 實驗三 40
一、 目的 40
二、 方法 40
三、 結果 44
四、 討論 45
第四章 結論 46
第一節  實驗結果總結 46
第二節 教學應用 47
第三節 未來研究建議 50
參考文獻 51
附錄一:時間判斷作業例圖 55
附錄二:實驗一、二閱讀促發作業 57
橫向閱讀作業和閱讀理解問題 57
直向閱讀作業和閱讀理解問題 63
附錄三:實驗三文化促發作業 69
東方促發例圖 69
西方促發例圖 72
附錄四:文化促發問卷 76
東方文化促發問卷 76
西方文化促發問卷 76


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