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研究生:何宛真
研究生(外文):HO, WAN-CHEN
論文名稱:國際投資法下關於實績要求之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on the Performance Requirements under International Investment Law
指導教授:王震宇王震宇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Chen-Yu
口試委員:鄭欽哲蔡瑄庭王震宇
口試委員(外文):Cheng, Chin-CheTsai, Shen-TingWang, Chen-Yu
口試日期:2014-07-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北大學
系所名稱:法律學系一般生組
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:183
中文關鍵詞:實績要求外人直接投資自製率要求出口實績要求與貿易有關投資措施協定地主國營運措施
外文關鍵詞:Performance RequirementsForeign Direct InvestmentLocal Content RequirementsExport RequirementsAgreement on Trade-Related Investment MeasuresHost Country Operational Measures
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近年來,外人直接投資在全球經濟發展下日趨重要。外人直接投資對於地主國而言,不僅帶來資本的流入,更帶來工作機會增加、技術轉移等優點。為吸引外人直接投資流入,各國相繼實行各種投 資政策。眾多政策中,實績要求係其中一種的政策手段。實績要求,亦即地主國要求投資者,於投資 時或投資進入後,其營運行為須符合地主國當地的政策性規範,以換取投資許可,或繼續獲得某些優 惠。國家有鑑於大量的外人直接投資流入,將可能造成國家喪失對當地經濟的自主性和控制權,故國 家實施實績要求,目的係為了避免上述風險,並進而提高流入國內的外人直接投資所帶來的利益。惟 實績要求的效果至今仍備受爭議,許多發展中國家認為其有權實施實績要求,以促進國家的工業化發 展,更認為實績要求係國家吸引外人直接投資不可或缺的政策工具之一;相反地,多數已開發國家認 為實績要求質疑實績要求的效果,認為其不但會影響投資的進入,對投資者反而造成更多生產成本。 由於多數已開發國家為投資者母國,認為地主國實施實績要求會嚴重干涉外國投資者的營運及降低利 益。為保護其投資者,由美國所領頭的國家始於多邊、區域及雙邊投資協定中制定限制實績要求之條款。

本文將從三個部分著手分析目前國際投資法下實績要求之概念及規範。首先,探求「實績要求」 的定義內容、分類及效果。再者,檢視目前國際投資法中較為重要的多邊、區域及雙邊投資協定裡, 有關限制實績要求之條款。最後,回頭檢視我國之投資協定及相關對外投資政策有關實績要求的制 定。本文除了以國際投資法現存架構為基礎,分析其規範內容外,希望更藉由建構更完整之體系與方 法,掌握實績要求之意涵,期能提供我國政府及學者於對外洽簽投資協定時,參考其規範內涵制定合 乎我國需求的實績要求內容及條款。
In recent years, foreign direct investment (hereinafter ‘FDI’) becomes increasingly important in the global economy. FDI brings not only capital inflows, but also job opportunities, technology transfer and other advantages. In order to attract FDI inflows, countries have implemented a variety of investment policies. Among those policies, performance requirement is one of the most important policy instruments.Performance requirements are stipulations, imposed on investors, requiring them to meet certain specified goals with respect to their operations in the host country. In respect that large amount of FDI inflows may result in loss of local economic autonomy, countries implement performance requirements, such as local content requirements, export requirements, and so on, to reduce above risks and further to optimize the benefits of FDI. However, there are divergent views as regards the effectiveness of performance requirements to achieve this end. While some countries regard performance requirements as an essential instrument in a country’s FDI policy package, others tend to argue that their impact on investments is at best limited and at worst costly and counter-productive. Since the majority of home countries of investors are developed countries, they regard that performance requirements would seriously interfere with investors’ operation activities, and reduce their benefits. In order to protect their investors, countries led by the United States began to establish the prohibition provisions of performance requirements in the multilateral, regional and bilateral investment agreements. This thesis will proceed with an analysis in three parts: first, searching the substantial means of performance requirements, including definition, classification and effectiveness. Second, surveying the relevant prohibition provisions of performance requirements in the current multinational, regional and bilateral investment agreements. The last, reviewing Taiwan’s foreign investment policies and the performance requirements prohibition provisions in the Taiwan’s bilateral investment agreements. This thesis is addressed toTaiwan’s government officials and researchers. It seeks to provide balanced and detailed analysis of issues on performance requirements under international investment law.
Short Index
Index
List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation
1.2 Purpose
1.3 Scope
1.4 Methodology

Chapter 2 Substantial Means of Performance Requirements
2.1 Definition
2.2 Categories
2.2.1 Mandatory and Incentive-based performance requirements
2.2.2 Traffic analogy classification
2.3 Effectiveness
2.3.1 Local Content Requirements
2.3.2. Export Performance Requirements
2.3.3 Trade Balancing Requirements
2.4 Conclusion

Chapter 3 Legal Basis of Performance Requirement
3.1 Multilateral Agreements
3.1.1 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
3.1.1.1 The Agreement on International Investment Incentives and Disincentives
3.1.1.2 Multilateral Agreement on Investment
3.1.2 World Bank Group
3.1.3 World Trade Organization
3.1.3.1 The General Agreement on Trade and Services
3.1.3.2 The World Organization Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures
3.2 Regional Trade and Economic Agreements
3.2.1 North American Free Trade Agreement
3.2.2 European Union
3.2.3 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
3.2.4 The Association of South-East Asian Nations
3.3 Bilateral Investment Treaties
3.3.1 U.S. Model Bilateral Investment Treaties
3.3.1.1 2004 U.S. Model Bilateral Investment Treaties
3.3.1.2 2012 U.S. Model Bilateral Investment Treaties
3.3.2 European Union BIT Template
3.3.3 South African Development Community Model BIT Template
3.4 Bilateral Agreements of Taiwan
3.4.1 Arrangement Between the Association of East Asian Relations and the Interchange Association for the Mutual Cooperation on
the Liberalization, Promotion and Protection of Investment
3.4.2 Agreement between Singapore and the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu on Economic
Partnership
3.4.3 Agreement between New Zealand And the Separate Customs territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu on Economic
Cooperation
3.5 Conclusion

Chapter 4 Foreign Investment Law and Policy of Taiwan
4.1 Foreign Investment Policy Objectives from Historical Perspective
4.2 Current Foreign Investment Environment
4.3 Implementation of Performance Requirements under Domestic Laws
4.3.1 Utilized Laws and Regulations
4.3.2 Enforceable Laws and Regulations
4.3.2.1 Performance Requirement Imposed on Investors from Mainland China
4.3.2.2 Performance Requirements Imposed on Foreign Nationals Investors and Overseas Chinese Investors
4.4 Future Perspective on Performance Requirements Provision
4.5 Conclusion

Chapter 5 Conclusion
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US Bilateral Investment Treaties: Recent Developments, Mayer Brown, at: http://www.mayerbrown.com/files/Publication/ae444628-6a40-4a3a-b6ba-fe81cbde0a3e/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/bb82d4d6-b014-4a3c-935f-00dee2cc9748/Update_US_Bilateral_Investment_Treaties_V1_0112.pdf (last updated on 11 June 2012).

2013 Investment Climate Statement - Taiwan, U.S. Department of State, Diplomacy in Action, at: http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2013/204742.htm (last updated on 20 July 2014).

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