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研究生:林瑋芳
研究生(外文):Wei-Fang Lin
論文名稱:「我們」談談,「好」嗎?-第一人稱複數代名詞在人際互動中所表徵的心理意涵
論文名稱(外文):Shall “We” Talk? –The Psychological Meaning of We Pronoun in Interpersonal Interaction
指導教授:林以正林以正引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Cheng Lin
口試委員:利翠珊張思嘉陳龍弘孫蒨如趙淑珠
口試委員(外文):Tsui-Shan LiSzu-Chia ChangLung Hung ChenChien-Ru SunShu-Chu Chao
口試日期:2014-05-23
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:心理適應字詞分析第一人稱複數代名詞關係適應
外文關鍵詞:interpersonal relationshipmotivationtext analysis“we” pronoun
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關係聚焦(relational-focus)與共享認同(share identity)是人際關係理論中重要的概念,許多實徵研究已經發現其有助於關係的發展與維繫,對個人的身心適應亦有所&;#31110;益。近來語言分析取向嘗試使用第一人稱複數代名詞「我們」的使用頻率來表徵關係聚焦與共享認同,但其對關係滿意度的預測效果卻不穩定,可能的調節因素仍待釐清。本研究以動機觀點切入,主張「我們」與適應指標之間的關聯,會受到個體所持的動機觀點調節而有不同的作用方向。本文依據Crocker所提出的兩大動機觀點架構區分出個我系統動機與生態系統動機,進一步以人際目標、友誼動機及人際情境等不同的角度切入,探討動機對「我們」和適應指標之間的調節效果。結果顯示持關愛目標的個體,使用越多「我們」,其幸福感越高,心理憂鬱越低(研究一);以自我肯定操弄驅動生態系統動機的個體,使用越多「我們」,其在對話過程中經驗到的正向情緒越多,負向情緒越低,且心理適應也越好(研究二);相對地,低趨近友誼動機的個體,使用越多「我們」,其友誼關係越差(研究三);高支配傾向的個體在衝突對話中使用越多「我們」,其關係滿意度越差(研究四);最後,感恩表達的情境中,使用越多的我們,其婚姻滿意度越高,生活滿意度也越高,且心理憂鬱越低(研究五)。總結而言,「我們」與正向適應指標之間的關聯,在偏向生態系統動機的個體上相對增強,在個我系統動機的個體上則相對減弱;反之,「我們」與負向適應指標之間的關聯,則對個我系統動機的個體而言更為明顯,對生態系統動機的個體則無此效果。針對本研究的理論貢獻、應用延伸及研究限制,在綜合討論中有更深入的闡述與說明。

Relational-focus and shared identity are important concepts in interpersonal processes and have positive impact on relationship functionings and personal health. Recently, researchers from language studies suggested that the use of the first-person plural pronoun (“we”) could be used as an implicit marker of relational-focus and shared identity. However, the relationships between the use of “we” pronoun and relationship satisfaction were unstable. Thus, clarification of possible moderating mechanisms are called for. Based on the perspective of ego-system and eco-system motivations, the current research argued that the interpersonal goals would moderate the relationships between “we” pronoun use and adjustment indices. Five studies with different operationalizations of the eco- and ego-motivation systems including self-affirmation priming, manipulations of approach and avoidance motivations, expression of gratitude, and individual differences measures, were adopted to examine this proposed moderation effect. Dyadic interactions between couples across various communication contexts were observed and their dialogues were recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed by LIWC.
Results confirmed that interpersonal motivations moderated the relationships between “we” pronoun uses and adjustment indices as predicted. More specifically, for those who hold eco-system motivation perspective, the more they used “we” pronoun in various communication contexts, the better relationship satisfaction and psychological adjustment they achieved. In contrast, for individuals with ego-system motivation, “we” pronoun positively correlated with negative outcomes. The current research confirmed the proposed moderation mechanism and further supported that language markers could be effective indices of implicit psychological processes. Empirical and theoretical implications are also discussed.


第一章 緒論與文獻探討 1
一、 社會聯結與人際關係 1
二、 語言分析研究取向 2
三、 「我們」的測量與心理意涵 4
四、 不同動機觀點下的「我們」 7
五、 動機觀點與人際目標 10
六、 動機觀點與自我肯定理論 11
七、 動機觀點與趨近-逃避動機 13
八、 動機觀點與衝突處理傾向 14
九、 動機觀點與人際情境 15
十、 小結 16
第二章 研究方法與結果 18
一、 研究一 18
二、 研究二 26
三、 研究三 35
四、 研究四 40
五、 研究五 46
第三章 綜合討論 52
一、 人我關係動機觀點的具體測量 55
二、 語言標記下脈絡化的去留 56
三、 動機觀點與情境因素的重要性 57
四、 行動者效果與伴侶效果 58
五、 說者無心,聽者有「意」 60
六、 人我關係動機觀點與人際關係的應用延伸 61
七、 研究限制與未來研究方向 64
參考文獻 66
附錄 77

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