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研究生:祝瑨瀧
研究生(外文):Jim-Loang Chu
論文名稱:認知老化與己年齡優勢效果對臉孔辨識的影響
論文名稱(外文):Cognitive Aging and Own-Age Bias in Face Recognition for Young and Older Adults
指導教授:胡志偉胡志偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Wei Hue
口試委員:顏乃欣呂菁菁
口試日期:2014-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:47
中文關鍵詞:年長者的記憶認知老化臉孔辨識己年齡優勢效果
外文關鍵詞:cognitive agingface recognitionmemoryown-age bias
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這是個全球人口急遽高齡化的世紀;估計,到2050年,年長者的人數將會達到20億,約佔全球總人口的22%。老化會為一個人帶來生理和心理的衰退,包括導致各種認知能力減弱的認知老化現象。臉孔辨識的能力也會受到老化的影響,而呈現衰退的情形。然而,過去對年長者臉孔辨識能力的研究多使用年輕成人的照片(圖片)作為實驗材料,當Perfect和Moon(2005)在實驗中增加年長者的照片刺激時,發現受試者對臉孔刺激的辨識會出現「己年齡優勢效果」(own-age bias);亦即,年長受試者對年長者照片的辨識比年輕人照片好,年輕受試者對年輕人照片的辨識比年長者照片好。在探討臉孔辨識的研究中,對己年齡優勢效果的研究不多,而且研究結果並不一致。本研究的目的是:(一) 探討年長者對不熟悉臉孔的記憶表現。(二) 檢驗己年齡優勢效果是否存在。本研究的實驗一以年輕人和年長者的臉孔照片為刺激,收集年輕與年長受試者對刺激的記憶表現。實驗一重複驗證了年長者對臉孔辨識能力衰退的現象,但年長者並未顯現己年齡優勢效果。實驗二以年長者為受試者,在減少刺激數目,增加觀看刺激時間的情況下,實驗也重複驗證了年長者對臉孔辨識的己年齡優勢效果。在本論文中,除了回顧與本研究有關的認知老化、臉孔辨識與己年齡優勢效果理論外,並將這些理論整合,提出一個說明本研究結果的解釋,亦即,提出一個臉孔辨識老化的理論模式。

Population aging is a phenomenon that many countries have faced nowadays and in the near future. To a person, aging leads to deteriorations both in physical strength and mental capabilities, including most of the cognitive functions. The ability to recognize faces develops very early for human being. However, this seemingly innate ability is not avoiding from cognitive aging. Despite that there is a general trend of deterioration in recognizing faces, Perfect and Moon (2005) found that old adults recognize the face of a person better if the person is from their age group. This effect is called own-age bias (OAB). Unfortunately, there is only a few research studying this effect, and results from these studies are inconsistent. The present study aims to investigate, (A) the abilities of older adults in recognizing unfamiliar young and old faces, and (B) the reliability of OAB effect. Experiment 1 asked a group of older and a group of young adults to remember some photos of young and older adults’ faces. The results of experiment 1 showed that older adults performed much worse than young ones, and that there was no OAB in memorizing “old” faces. In Experiment 2, an OAB effect was observed for the older adults when the difficulty of facial recognition task was reduced by using fewer stimuli and longer studying time.

目次

第一章、 文獻探討…................................................................................................01
第一節 認知老化…..............................................................................................02
第二節 臉孔辨識..................................................................................................06
第三節 年長者臉孔辨識的能力….....................................................................08
第四節 「己年齡優勢效果」與本研究目的.....................................................10
第二章、先前研究.....................................................................................................14
第一節 研究方法…..............................................................................................14
第二節 研究結果..................................................................................................15
第三章、實驗一..........................................................................................................17
第一節 研究方法…..............................................................................................17
第二節 研究結果..................................................................................................19
第三節 討論...........................................................................................................25
第四章、實驗二..........................................................................................................27
第一節 研究方法…..............................................................................................27
第二節 研究結果..................................................................................................30
第三節 討論...........................................................................................................36
第五章、綜合討論.....................................................................................................38
第六章、參考文獻.....................................................................................................41
第七章、附錄...............................................................................................................46
附件一 受試者知情同意書..................................................................................46
附件二 國立臺灣大學研究倫理委員會審查核可證明....................................47


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