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研究生:袁知芃
研究生(外文):Chih-Peng Yuan
論文名稱:都市熱島效應對疣尾蝎虎(Hemidactylus frenatus)生殖效率與活動的影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of urban heat island on reproductive efficiency and activity of tropical house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus)
指導教授:李玲玲李玲玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ling-Ling Lee
口試委員:李培芬李魁鵬林宜靜黃文山
口試委員(外文):Pei-Fen LeeKuei-Peng LeeYi-Ching LinWen-San Huang
口試日期:2014-07-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生態學與演化生物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:英文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:熱島效應疣尾蝎虎生殖效率活動
外文關鍵詞:Urban heat islandHemidactylus frenatusreproductive efficiencyactivity
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摘要
都市熱島效應是指都市地區在夜晚時的氣溫比周圍郊區高的現象。由於低溫會限制外溫動物的活動與生殖,所以本研究預期熱島效應造成的夜晚增溫,可以延長都市中夜行外溫動物-疣尾蝎虎的夜晚活動時間與提升生殖效率,進而提高當地疣尾蝎虎的密度。除了熱島效應外,本研究還分析了其他可能影響壁虎生殖與活動的生物性(食物量與兩種共域壁虎-無疣蝎虎與鉛山壁虎的密度)與非生物性環境因子(夜晚開燈程度與建築物年齡)的影響。
本研究在 2012 年的五月到十二月間調查台北市 40 所學校的壁虎數量與其中14 所學校的壁虎夜晚活動時間,並利用校園氣象站的資料計算各校的月熱島強度(都市與郊區在午夜兩點的月平均溫度差),以及利用在 14 所有調查壁虎夜晚活動時間的學校裝設自動溫濕度記錄器所得的紀錄計算調查活動當夜的日熱島強度(當夜都市與郊區午夜兩點的溫度差)與午夜兩點的實際溫度(T2am),再以廣義線性模型分析熱島強度、實際溫度、其他生物性與非生物性因子和疣尾蝎虎的生殖效率(幼體數量與成體數量的比例)、密度及夜晚活動時間的相關性。
結果顯示,在暖季時,壁虎的活動時間與日熱島強度呈現顯著或近顯著的正相關。但在冷季時,壁虎的活動時間和月熱島強度與日熱島強度分別有顯著與近顯著的負相關。而疣尾蝎虎的幼成比與密度與月熱島強度的相關性皆不顯著。但是,兩種共域壁虎的密度卻與各月份月熱島強度皆呈現顯著負相關。而在熱島強度最低的 11 月份,兩種共域壁虎的密度與疣尾蝎虎的活動時間與密度呈現顯著或近顯著的負相關。雖然熱島效應並未提升疣尾蝎虎的生殖效率與密度,但熱島效
應可能間接經由抑制兩種共域壁虎在暖季時對疣尾蝎虎的種間競爭,而有利於後者的生存與活動。

Abstract
Urban areas tend to have higher air temperature than rural areas, especially at night, and this effect is called urban heat island (UHI). Because low temperature may limit the activity and reproduction of nocturnal ectothermic animals, I expect that warming effect of UHI would extend night activity time and increase reproductive efficiency of urban
adaptive gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus). In addition to UHI, I also examined the effects of several biotic and abiotic factors, i.e. prey availability, density of coexisting gecko, night lighting condition and building age, on density and activity of gecko.
I surveyed the gecko abundance of 40 schools and night activity time of geckos at 14 schools in Taipei from May to December, 2012, calculated monthly UHI intensity (UHII) (mean monthly temperature difference between urban and rural schools at 2 am) of 40 schools based on data collected from the weather stations of these schools, recorded the daily UHII (temperature difference between urban and rural schools at 2 am on the surveyed day) and temperature at 2 am (T2am) based on data loggers I had placed at the 14 schools where I did the survey of geckos’ night activity time, and used the generalized linear model to analyze the correlation between UHII, T2am, other biotic and abiotic factors and reproductive efficiency (juvenile-adult ratio), density and mean activity time of H. frenatus.
The results showed that activity time had significant or marginally significant positive correlation with daily UHII in warm months, but in cold month, activity time had significant and marginally significant negative correlation with monthly and daily UHII, respectively. The correlation between juvenile-adult ratio and gecko density with UHII was not significant. However, for the other two coexisting geckos (Hemidactylus bowringii and Gekko hokouensis), UHII had negative correlation with their density in all months. In November when UHII was the weakest, density of two coexisting gecko had negative correlation with activity and density of H. frenatus. Although urban heat island did not significantly benefit the reproduction and density of H. frenatus, it may indirectly benefit H. frenatus via suppressing interspecies competition of the other two
coexisting gecko species.

Contents
Chinese abstract……………………………………………………………………… I
English abstract………………………………………………………………………. III
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 1
Material and methods………………………………………................. 5
Study subjects……………………………………………………………...… 5
Urban heat island analysis………………………………………………...…. 6
Gecko density and reproductive efficiency………………………………...... 7
Night activity time survey………………………………………………….... 8
Biotic and abiotic factors………………………………………….................. 9
Statistics……………………………………………………………………... 10
Results…………………………………………………………………………...… 13
Urban heat island analysis………………………………………………...... 13
Reproductive efficiency, density and activity time……………..…..……… 13
Biotic and abiotic factors…………………………………………………… 16
Discussion………………………………………………………………………….… 19
References………………………………………………………………… 23

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