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研究生:王荏
研究生(外文):Jen Wang
論文名稱:工作彈性對工作結果的影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Work Flexibility on Work Outcomes
指導教授:謝雨生謝雨生引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeu-Sheng Hsieh
口試委員:吳齊殷周玉慧
口試委員(外文):Chyi-In WuYuh-Huey Jou
口試日期:2014-06-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生物產業傳播暨發展學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業經濟及推廣學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:156
中文關鍵詞:工作結果工作彈性潛在類別模型反事實因果推論穩定處理機率倒數加權法
外文關鍵詞:work outcomeswork flexibilitylatent class modelscounterfactual causal inferenceinverse probability of treatment weighting
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本研究的目的有三:(1)探究個人工作結果之異同,及工作結果的分類型態;(2)解析台灣勞動參與者工作彈性的差異,及工作彈性的代表性類型與其涵義;(3)分析個人的工作彈性類型對工作結果的影響效果。本研究使用2005年台灣社會變遷基本調查五期一次「工作取向」的資料,總分析樣本數為1205人。分析方法先採用潛在類別模型進行工作彈性之分類,再以多類別邏輯迴歸模型與反事實因果推論之穩定處理機率倒數加權法,探討工作彈性對工作結果的影響。本研究的研究發現為:(1)台灣勞動參與者的工作結果類型可分為「兩全其美結果型」、「內在感知滿足型」、「外在報酬導向型」、「負面工作反應型」四種類型;(2)台灣勞動參與者的工作彈性類型可分為「全自主彈性型」、「半自主彈性型」與「非自主彈性型」三類別;(3)排除工作彈性的選擇性效果之後,發現台灣勞動參與者的工作彈性類型確實會對工作結果造成影響;(4)相較於半自主彈性型與非自主彈性型,工作彈性為全自主彈性型的台灣勞動參與者比較容易擁有兩全其美結果型之工作結果。(5)相較於半自主彈性型與非自主彈性型,全自主彈性型的勞動參與者也比較容易擁有內在感知滿足型之工作結果。

第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究背景與目的 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 研究重要性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
第二章 文獻回顧 11
2.1 工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.1 內在工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1.2 外在工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.1.3 工作結果的類型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2 工作彈性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2.1 彈性工作制與工作彈性的意義 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2.2 工作彈性的類型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.3 影響工作彈性的因素及相關研究 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.1 個人特質 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.2 工作特性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.4 工作彈性與工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.4.1 工作彈性與內在工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.4.2 工作彈性與外在工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.5 工作彈性的因果推論 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.5.1 工作彈性的內生性與選擇性問題 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.5.2 工作彈性與反事實因果推論 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.5.3 反事實取徑在工作彈性中的應用 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.6 研究架構與研究假設 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.6.1 研究架構 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.6.2 研究假設 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
第三章 研究設計 52
3.1 資料來源 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
3.2 變項測量 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.1 依變項: 工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2.2 工作彈性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.2.3 控制變項 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.3 資料處理與樣本清理流程 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.4 分析策略與程序 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4.1 工作結果之分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4.2 工作彈性之分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
3.4.3 工作彈性的因果效應分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.4.4 工作彈性選擇性效果的處理 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3.4.5 工作彈性對工作結果影響之分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
3.4.6 分析策略小結 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
第四章 分析結果 77
4.1 樣本特性分析 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.2 台灣勞動參與者之工作結果 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.2.1 台灣勞動參與者的工作結果類型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
4.2.2 不同工作結果類型的特徵 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.3 台灣勞動參與者之工作彈性 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.3.1 台灣勞動參與者的工作彈性類型 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4.3.2 不同工作彈性類型的特徵 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
4.3.3 影響工作彈性之因素 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
4.4 工作彈性對工作結果的影響 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.5 分析結果總結 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
第五章 結論與討論 122
5.1 結論 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
5.1.1 台灣勞動參與者工作結果的類型與特徵 . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
5.1.2 台灣勞動參與者工作彈性的類型與特徵 . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
5.1.3 台灣勞動參與者工作彈性對工作結果的影響 . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.2 討論 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.2.1 台灣勞動參與者工作結果的意涵 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
5.2.2 台灣勞動參與者工作彈性的意涵 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
5.2.3 台灣勞動參與者工作彈性對工作結果的影響意涵 . . . . . . . . 131
5.3 建議 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5.3.1 實務應用之建議 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5.3.2 未來研究之建議 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
參考文獻 140
附錄 154

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