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研究生:陳玠廷
研究生(外文):Jie-Ting Chen
論文名稱:臺灣有機農業反身現代現象之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Reflexive Modern on the Transformation of Organic Agriculture in Taiwan
指導教授:蕭崑杉蕭崑杉引用關係
口試委員:蔡明哲董時叡蔡建福張瑋琦
口試日期:2014-01-14
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生物產業傳播暨發展學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業經濟及推廣學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:269
中文關鍵詞:有機農業反身現代友善環境永續發展
外文關鍵詞:Organic AgricultureReflexive ModernEnvironment-friendlySustainable Development
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:22
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有機農業,原是一類對受科學主義、資本主義典範影響之慣行農業的反省與實踐;在當代食農研究的討論中,為區分環境主義與資本主義對該產業理念上的競奪,故逐漸浮現出「草根有機」、「慣行有機」與「後有機運動」等多元類型的討論。本研究以反身現代理論為基礎,透過質性研究的方法取徑與資料分析,探討臺灣有機農業的發展現況並提出理論性的詮釋。

在分析上,本研究分成兩個部分:首先,以歷年平面媒體對有機農業的報導為文本,分析不同發展階段臺灣有機農業的媒體再現,及所呈現之風險、信任機制等反身現代特徵;再者,以慈心有機農業發展基金會作為個案研究的追蹤對象,探討臺灣有機農業推廣實務在面對外在結構變化下的因應策略,並透過行動者網絡理論與交引纏繞概念的理論觀點,理解由慈心有機農業發展基金會所推動之「綠色保育計畫」,如何同時兼顧經濟發展與生態保育,作為以反身現代理論詮釋臺灣有機農業發展的補充。

整體而言,臺灣有機農業以家庭農戶的小農為主要經營主體,且在發展上受制度法規與驗證制度的影響甚鉅。本研究認為,應視有機農業為一由各式行動者共同構成的異質性網絡,以理解不同行動者對外在結構回應上的差異,及所產生主流與另類有機農業發展途徑的分野。最後,本研究建議為了實踐有機農業關於永續發展的願景,臺灣農政部門應正視不同型態友善環境耕作行為的發展,並透過相關促進性質法規的立法,保障非資本密集小農的生存空間。


Organic agriculture had been considered a reflexive farming practice as the opposite of conventional agriculture under the influence of scientism and capitalism in the early stage. But following the passage in contemporary development of organic agriculture and the contestation between environmentalism and capitalism, several different discursive forms referring to this kind of agriculture system have also emerged: such as “grassroots organic”, “conventional organic” and “post-organic movement” in recent agro-food studies. The present research building on the theory of Reflexive Modernization aims to take the qualitative approach to explore the current state of organic agriculture in Taiwan

The analysis is divided into two parts. The first part dwells upon the presence of media representations of organic agriculture in Taiwan based on newspaper reports and related documents, with which the features of reflexive modernity on organic agriculture in each stage of the development are discussed, such as risk and institutions of trust. Subsequently, the case study of Tse-Xin Organic Agriculture Foundation (TOAF) is given to elaborate on the practical experiences in extension of organic agriculture in Taiwan, namely how the enrolled actors respond to the changing structure. To do so, this study addresses how one of the projects initiated by TOAF—the “Green Habitat Conservation”—may achieve the balance between ecological conservation and economic growth through Actor-Network Theory and the concept of Entanglement to illuminate the theory of Reflexive Modernization underpinning the domestic development of organic agriculture.

Generally speaking, as organic agriculture is seen as a reflexive practice for sustainable development, the practice in Taiwan is still operated mainly by small family farms under the impact of the related legislation and certification system. And by understanding organic agriculture as a heterogeneous network constructed by both human and non-human actors, the discussion gets to capture how the enrolled actors may respond to the changing structure differently, from which sprouts mainstream and alternative development paths of organic agriculture in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests both mainstream as well as alternative organic practices be served equally in the policy realm, and the latter which tend to adopt environment-friendly farming without the certification be ensured capacity to develop.


口試委員審定書............................-I-
謝誌......................................-II-
中文摘要..................................-IV-
英文摘要..................................-V-

第一章、緒論..............................-001-
一、前言................................-001-
1、現代農業的發展困境與轉機...........-002-
2、臺灣有機農業的發展歷程與困境.......-005-
二、研究問題與研究目的..................-011-
三、研究重要性..........................-013-

第二章、文獻探討..........................-016-
一、另一個現代化的浮現與論爭............-019-
1、反身現代概念之討論.................-019-
1.1現代性與制度反身性...............-019-
1.2反身現代化下的風險與信任.........-024-
1.3世界風險社會?...................-032-
1.4反身現代相關討論與小結...........-034-
2、反身現代的批判:Latour「交引纏繞」概念之討論..-038-
2.1從「社會」到「聚合體」:行動者網絡理論......-038-
2.2交引纏繞與風險...................-040-
二、有機農業型態的概念討論..............-043-
1、草根有機:現代農業生產的另類出路...-044-
2、慣行有機農業:資本主義的侵入.......-048-
2.1當代社會的有機消費現象...........-049-
2.2被「管制」的有機農業.............-051-
2.3有機農業背離環境主義的發展?.....-054-
3、後有機運動的浮現...................-056-
3.1農夫市集與綠消費.................-057-
3.2另類驗證體系與標示系統...........-060-
4、小結...............................-064-

第三章、方法論與研究方法..................-068-
一、研究概念說明........................-069-
二、社會學方法的新規則..................-071-
1、俗民方法論.........................-072-
2、新規則與雙重詮釋...................-074-
3、反身性方法論.......................-076-
三、研究方法及其反身性意涵..............-078-
1、深度詮釋...........................-079-
2、論述分析...........................-081-
3、個案研究...........................-083-
4、研究者的反身性立場.................-084-
四、資料蒐集與研究對象..................-086-
1、資料分析...........................-086-
2、追蹤對象個案研究...................-087-

第四章、臺灣有機農業的型態轉變............-091-
一、有機農業在臺灣......................-091-
二、臺灣有機農業型態轉變的敘述..........-101-
1、分析文本說明.......................-101-
2、不同時期的有機農業型態.............-104-
2.1有機萌芽期(-1996年)............-104-
2.2概念模糊期(1997年-2006年)......-111-
2.3立法規範期(2007年-迄今)........-121-
2.4臺灣有機農業的論述型態...........-134-
三、臺灣有機農業多元發展的討論..........-138-
1、反身現代觀點詮釋...................-138-
2、有機農業多元發展觀點的詮釋難題.....-140-
3、有機農業發展的交引纏繞現象.........-147-
四、小結................................-148-

第五章、有機農業不同形式並存現象之討論....-150-
一、個案介紹:慈心有機農業發展基金會....-151-
二、從對立到合作的關係改變..............-159-
1、草創萌芽期(-2001年)..............-160-
2、事業成長期(2001年-2007年)........-169-
2.1驗證制度的建立...................-169-
2.2產銷物流體系的發展...............-175-
2.3對外理念傳遞.....................-184-
3、格局擴大期(2008年-迄今)..........-192-
三、經濟與生態的競合:綠色保育計畫......-201-
1、緣起:現代農業的兩難困境...........-202-
2、生產?生態?迴盪天平兩端的取捨.....-205-
3、以生態為主體的農業行為:綠色保育計畫..-211-
3.1制度層面的反省...................-211-
3.2作物選擇的反省...................-220-
3.3化約呈現的生態系:保育標的動物的選擇.-226-
3.4衣食足而後知榮辱的綠色經濟.......-232-
四、小結................................-239-

第六章、總結與討論........................-243-
1、反身現代的有機農業詮釋.............-245-
2、交引纏繞的有機農業詮釋.............-247-
3、結語與建議.........................-250-

參考文獻..................................-255-


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