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研究生:林樞衡
研究生(外文):Shu-Heng Lin
論文名稱:三維速度模型雙差分地震定位程式之開發及其在2013年台灣瑞穗地震序列之應用
論文名稱(外文):A development of double-difference earthquake location program using three-dimensional velocity model and its application to the 2013 Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake sequence
指導教授:吳逸民吳逸民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yih-Min Wu
口試委員:李憲忠郭陳澔
口試委員(外文):Shiann-Jong LeeHao Kuo-Chen
口試日期:2014-07-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:地質科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:雙差分地震定位法聯合逆推合成資料測試地震重定位瑞穗地震序列
外文關鍵詞:double-differencejoint inversionsynthetic data testearthquake relocationRuisui earthquake sequence
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地震定位是地震觀測中最基礎的工作項目之一,藉由更精準的計算地震發生的位置和時間,可以成為其它相關研究中重要的參考依據。「雙差分地震定位演算法」是眾多地震重定位方法的其中之一。被廣泛應用於研究的雙差分地震定位程式hypoDD(Waldhauser and Ellthworth, 2000)僅支援使用一維層狀速度模型進行定位,對於測向波速變化較為複雜的區域,定位結果的改善較為有限。另外因為雙差分地震定位演算法本身的限制,對於地震群中較外圍的孤立地震,將無法得到其定位結果。本研究所使用的三維雙差分地震定位法(3D-DD)使用三維球面座標之虛擬曲折波線追跡法來計算理論走時,以得到更為精確的地震位置。本程式也將雙差分定位法與單事件定位法進行聯合逆推,可在進行定位的同時保留孤立的地震資料。我們以合成資料測試檢驗定位法之表現,測試結果顯示3D-DD能得到比hypoDD及單純的三維地震定位更加精確的定位結果。我們亦將此地震定位法應用於2013年10月31日於台灣花蓮瑞穗發生之地震序列之重新定位。以三維雙差分定位法重定位的結果和地震目錄中原先的震源位置相比,震源分布顯得較為密集、線性,而走時殘差、定位誤差也明顯降低。以重定位之震源位置配合台灣地區速度構造討論之結果,瑞穗地震序列應為呂宋弧前地殼之構造運動,於其西側邊界所產生之地震活動相關。

Double-difference algorithm is one of the methods used in earthquake relocation. The widely used double-difference relocation program is hypoDD (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000; Waldhauser, 2001). It only supports using layered velocity model in the relocation process. To improve the relocation result by using higher resolution velocity model, we developed a double-difference earthquake relocation program using three-dimensional velocity model (3D-DD). Moreover, we also joint single-event relocation method with double-difference location algorithm during the inversion procedure, in order to prevent losing the relocation results when double-difference location algorithm is only used. The performance of the program was tested by a series of synthetic data tests, and the location error of 3D-DD is smaller than the error of hypoDD and a three-dimensional single event earthquake relocation program. We also apply our method on the relocation of Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake sequence occurred on October 31st, 2013. The relocated hypocentral distribution is much more concentrated and linear. The location error and residual also became smaller after relocated by this method. By relocated hypocenters and velocity structure of Taiwan area, the cause of Ruisui earthquake may be the tectonic activity of the Luzon forearc crust.

論文口試委員會審定書 I
誌謝 III
中文摘要 V
Abstract VII
總目錄 IX
圖目錄 XIII
表目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 研究內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 地震定位簡介 3
2.2 台灣的地震重定位研究 6
2.3 台灣的地震定位誤差 8
2.4 台灣三維速度模型 10
2.5 花東縱谷地區地震構造研究 13
第三章 研究方法 17
3.1 研究流程 17
3.2 地震定位法 19
3.2.1 單事件地震定位法 19
3.2.2 雙差分地震定位法 21
3.3 本研究使用之三維模型雙差分地震定位法 23
3.3.1 方法原理 23
3.3.2 3D-DD程式架構 26
3.3.3 波線追跡法 28
3.4 震源機制解之求取 29
第四章 合成資料測試 33
4.1 測試流程 33
4.2 資料 36
4.2.1 測試一:無雜訊測試 36
4.2.2 測試二:加入隨機雜訊 39
4.2.3 測試三:加入孤立地震 39
4.2.4 測試四:改變測站分布狀況 41
4.2.5 測試五:近、遠測站資料聯合定位 43
4.3 結果 46
4.3.1 測試一之結果 46
4.3.2 測試二之結果 46
4.3.3 測試三之結果 50
4.3.4 測試四之結果 50
4.3.5 測試五之結果 54
4.4 討論與小結 57
第五章 應用:2013年台灣瑞穗地震序列 59
5.1 資料 59
5.2 結果 62
5.2.1 地震重定位結果 62
5.2.2 震源機制解結果 68
5.3 討論與小結 71
第六章 結論 79
參考文獻 81
附錄A 震源機制解參數表 85
附錄B 震源機制解圖錄 87


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