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研究生:曾羽龍
研究生(外文):Yu-Lung Tseng
論文名稱:利用琉球隱沒帶導波求取隱沒板塊非均向性
論文名稱(外文):Subducting slab anisotropy inferred from guided wave events in Ryukyu subduction zone
指導教授:胡植慶胡植慶引用關係陳卉瑄陳卉瑄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jyr-Ching HuHui-Hsuan Chen
口試委員:洪淑蕙郭本垣梁文宗
口試委員(外文):Shu-Huei HungBan-Yuan KuoWen-Tzong Liang
口試日期:2014-07-01
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:地質科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:186
中文關鍵詞:隱沒帶導波高頻地震波剪力波分離板塊非均向性
外文關鍵詞:Subduction zoneGuided waveHigh frequency seismic waveShear wave splittingSubducting slab anisotropy
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在隱沒帶系統中,隱沒板塊本身的非均向性構造特性一直受到爭論。過去利用剪力波分離現象來測量隱沒帶非均向性的研究中,皆難以有效分離出板塊本身非均向性的大小及方向,而近年來發展的技術,例如P波層析成像技術及接收函數分析法,則進一步指出板塊本身存在一定程度之非均向性,然而確切大小卻不易解析。
本研究欲尋找沿板塊內部傳播的隱沒帶導波事件,利用剪力波分離特徵來有效測量隱沒板塊本身之非均向性。當地震波傳遞經過隱沒帶時,會產生複雜的波傳特性。震波沿著隱沒板塊傳遞一段長距離後,其波形具有短暫低頻P波初達訊號,且其後緊隨持續時間長的高頻訊號。此種具有高頻振幅放大的隱沒帶導波可用來解釋地表異常強地動行為,並且是理解隱沒板塊物理特性的重要依據。本研究嘗試利用隱沒帶導波之特性來約制地震事件到達測站的路徑關係,並進一步利用具有導波效應之測站及地震事件進行剪力波分離之觀測。我們搜尋台灣兩隱沒帶之地震事件,經由分析其波形特徵(頻譜及時頻分析)以及異常之地表強地動分布,系統性探討台灣兩隱沒帶(琉球隱沒帶及馬尼拉隱沒帶)之導波效應。本研究發現台灣東北的琉球隱沒帶系統,其導波特性(造成高頻振幅放大的程度)較為明顯,故使用琉球隱沒帶導波事件求取隱沒板塊非均向性。
利用ML>5的30個有明顯導波效應的琉球隱沒帶導波事件,我們進一步利用質點運動分析法及波形交對比法來進行剪力波分離參數(有明顯導波之測量。有效之剪力波分離測量結果顯示,整體分離時間差約在0.06-0.68 s,其方向性特徵可分為三群,最北部為琉球地幔楔之非均向性,以東-西向及西北-東南向為主,而往南靠近具有導波測站則呈現兩種型態之方向性,除了與前人研究(平行台灣造山帶方向,為南-北向與北偏東向)一致的S波極化方向外,亦有異常的S波極化方向為北北西向,其分離時間差為0.2-0.46 s,本研究推測其可能受到板塊本身之非均向性之影響,初估其大小略大於台灣北部地殼之非均向性(<1s),但小於台灣上部地幔之非均向性大小(0.3-1.3 s)。


Frozen-in anisotropic structure in the oceanic lithosphere and faulting/hydration in the upper layer of the slab are expected to play an important role in anisotropic signature of the subducted slab. Over the past several decades, despite the advances in the knowledge of crustal and upper mantle anisotropy, the character of the subducting slab anisotropy remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the slab anisotropy using subduction zone guided waves characterized by long path length in the slab. In the southernmost Ryukyu subduction zone, seismic waves from events deeper than 100 km offshore northern Taiwan reveal wave guide behaviors: (1) low-frequency (<1 Hz) first arrival recognized on vertical and radial components but not transverse component, and (2) large, sustained high-frequency (3-10 Hz) signal in P and S wave trains. The depth dependent high-frequency content (3-10Hz) confirms the association with a waveguide effect in the subducting slab rather than localized site amplification effects. Using the selected subduction zone guided wave events, we further analyzed the shear wave splitting for intermediate-depth earthquakes in different frequency bands, to provide the statistically meaningful shear wave splitting parameters. We determine shear wave splitting parameters from the 30 PSP guided events that are deeper than 100 km with ray path traveling along the subducted slab. From shear wave splitting analysis, our results show the total range of delay time of 0.06–0.68 sec. From the difference of polarization patterns of fast direction, we find out three groups which included the northern Taiwan mantle wedge effect and the parallel Taiwan orogeny anisotropy and the possible slab anisotropy. The slab and crust effects reveal consistent polarization pattern of fast directions of North North-West and delay time of 0.2-0.46 sec. This implies that slab anisotropy is stronger than the crust effect (<0.1 s) but weaker than the upper mantle effect (0.3-1.3 s) in Taiwan.

口試委員會審定書 I
誌謝 II
中文摘要 IV
ABSTRACT VI
目錄 VIII
圖目錄 XI
表目錄 XIV
附錄目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機及目的 1
1.2 隱沒帶的非均向性特性 3
1.2.1物理特性 4
1.2.2觀測手段 8
1.2.3觀測結果 9
1.3 隱沒帶板塊非均質特性 12
1.4 台灣隱沒帶系統的隱沒板塊特性 19
1.5.1 琉球-台灣隱沒帶 19
1.5.2 馬尼拉-台灣隱沒帶 23
第二章 台灣隱沒帶導波之判識 25
2.1 波形特徵及頻率特徵 30
2.2 導波特徵之深度分布 30
2.3 異常強地動之分布 35
2.4 量化隱沒帶導波 38
2.4.1 移動時窗頻譜分析法 38
2.4.2 平均頻率放大效應 41
2.5 台灣隱沒帶導波特性歸納 43
第三章 研究方法 45
3.1 研究區域及地震資料 45
3.2 資料篩選準則 46
3.3 資料處理 47
3.4 剪力波分離之測量 48
3.4.1 質點運動分析 49
3.4.2 波形交相關對比法 50
3.4.3 信心區間之估計 52
第四章 研究結果 53
4.1 剪力波分離結果之判識準則 53
4.2 剪力波分離的觀測結果 53
4.3 快波方向之特性 58
4.4 快慢波分離時間差之特性 60
第五章 結果分析與討論 62
5.1 剪力波分離解之非均向性探討 62
5.2 隱沒帶板塊非均向性探討 64
5.3 隱沒帶導波與資料篩選探討 64
5.4 隱沒板塊之非均向性探討 65
5.5 隱沒帶導波與板塊非均向性之機制探討 67
第六章 結論 68
參考文獻 70
附錄一 琉球隱沒帶之導波事件 82
附錄二 琉球隱沒帶ML>5導波事件之剪力波分離結果 91
附錄三 琉球隱沒帶4<ML<5導波事件之剪力波分離結果 123



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