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研究生:李佩蓉
研究生(外文):Pei-Jung Li
論文名稱:程序環境人權在區域組織的建構與發展:歐盟與東協的比較與反思
論文名稱(外文):The Construction and Development of Procedural Environmental Rights in Regional Organizations: The Comparison of EU and ASEAN
指導教授:張文貞張文貞引用關係
口試委員:葉俊榮施文真林春元
口試日期:2014-01-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:法律學研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:程序環境人權規範形塑進程區域組織東南亞國協歐洲聯盟
外文關鍵詞:procedural environmental rightslegal processregional organizationAssociation of Southeast Asian NationsEuropean Union
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
  • 點閱點閱:445
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在國際環境法與人權法的匯流之下,與環境相關的權利論述,在近年有相當的發展,其中又以程序環境人權為發展重點,無論是在國際環境法或是國際人權法中都獲得重視。值得探討的是,此一強調程序環境人權的發展趨勢,是否在區域組織或規範機制中亦有相似的發展?在不同的區域組織之間,發展進程與形塑發展的因子是否相同?為了回答前述問題,本文選定東南亞國協與歐洲聯盟為觀察對象,探討環境相關權利的國際法論述於這兩個區域組織中是否展現同樣的發展趨勢,並探討背後因素。
本文發現,國際環境相關權利的論述雖以程序環境人權為發展重點,但反映到區域之後,因區域背景與組織特色的影響,在歐盟與東協的脈絡之下皆呈現不同的發展趨勢。相較之下,歐盟之趨勢與國際法趨勢較為相近,東協則呈現較多差異。而在界定區域組織的特色如何帶動、形塑、或阻礙程序環境人權之發展上,本文發現區域中互動結構、規範型態以及機關設置的不同,皆可能影響權利論述的發展。基於上述理解及本文對於東協的關懷,本文進一步觀察東協內部整合路徑、東協之定位以及東南亞區域的互動結構,反思東協未來發展程序環境人權之空間與可能性,並提出東協未來發展程序環境人權之最適路徑提案。


The convergence of international environmental law and human rights law has enhanced the development of environmental rights in recent years. Within the trend of the development in international law, the procedural environmental rights have gained the position as the focal point, supported by both discourses within international environmental law and human rights law. While there is such phenomenon within international law, it is worthwhile to research on whether similar trend can be found in regional level; and whether different regional organizations would perform different trends shaped by different factors. To answer these questions, this Thesis selected two regional organizations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the European Union (EU), to become the objects of observation, with the aims to observe the trend of the development in regional level, and to analyze the determining factors within these regional organizations affecting the legal process.
This Thesis submitted that, despite the fact that the international environmental right discourse has procedural environmental rights as its focal point of development, in the context of regions, both EU and ASEAN submitted different routes of trend. While the trend within EU is closer to the trend in international law, ASEAN by contrast, presents a rather different route of development. Regarding the determining factors shaping the norm within regional level, this Thesis submitted that there are three factors that could shape and affect the discourse of procedural environmental rights, including the structure of regional interaction, the pattern of norms and the design of institution. Based on this understanding and encouraged by the concern of this Thesis on ASEAN, this Thesis further observed the integration roadmap of ASEAN, the characters of ASEAN and the regional interaction structure; considered the potential of ASEAN in developing the discourse of procedural environmental rights; and provided two proposals for future development.


第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第一項 環境人權與環境權的發展趨勢 2
第二項 區域組織之角色 4
第三項 問題意識 6
第二節 研究方法 7
第一項 國際法規範形塑過程為焦點 7
第二項 程序與實體權利的呈現樣態 8
第三節 研究範圍與限制 9
第二章 國際法之環境相關權利發展趨勢 10
第一節 國際人權法 11
第一項 實體環境人權 11
第一款 生命權 11
第二款 健康權 12
第三款 自決權、文化與宗教權 12
第二項 程序環境人權 13
第一款 取得環境資訊之權利 14
第二款 公眾參與環境決策之權利 15
第三款 受損害後獲得有效救濟之權利 16
第三項 新型權利:環境權 17
第四項 小結 19
第二節 國際環境法 19
第一項 國際環境柔性規範 20
第一款 斯德哥爾摩人類環境宣言 20
第二款 世界自然憲章 21
第三款 里約環境與發展宣言 21
第四款 二十一世紀議程 22
第五款 小結 23
第二項 國際環境公約 23
第一款 規範個別環境領域之國際公約 24
第二款 提供環境資訊與決策程序之國際公約 25
第三款 因應環境損害賠償之國際公約 26
第三項 小結 27
第三節 觀察:國際環境相關權利之發展趨勢 28
第一項 以部分程序環境人權為主要交界 28
第二項 曇花一現的發展權以及環境權 30
第三章 歐洲聯盟之程序環境人權發展進程 31
第一節 背景:經濟整合與跨境環境損害 31
第二節 歐盟與環境相關權利 33
第一項 概觀歐盟 33
第二項 歐盟環境機制中的權利論述 35
第一款 歐盟環境法之發展 35
第二款 歐盟環境法體系與運作機制 37
第三款 歐盟環境規範與權利論述 39
第一目 環境影響評估指令 39
第二目 環境資訊指令 40
第三目 獲得環境正義之指令提案與相關救濟途徑 40
第三項 歐盟決策過程中的程序保障 41
第四項 歐盟基本權利憲章與環境權 43
第五項 小結 44
第三節 歐盟外機制:奧爾胡斯公約 45
第四節 歐盟外機制:歐洲人權公約 46
第一項 概觀歐洲人權公約與機制 47
第二項 歐洲人權法之環境人權論述 48
第一款 實體環境人權與環境權 48
第二款 程序環境人權 50
第三項 小結 51
第五節 觀察與分析:歐盟之程序環境人權發展進程 52
第一項 以程序環境人權為主的匯流趨勢 52
第二項 區域組織特性與影響 53
第一款 區域內多重機制運作 53
第二款 歐盟規範給予國家有限空間 54
第三款 司法機關保障救濟權 55
第四章 東南亞國協之程序環境人權發展進程 56
第一節 背景:區域特有的脆弱性與跨境環境損害 56
第一項 區域特有的脆弱性 57
第二項 跨境環境損害 58
第二節 東協與環境相關權利 60
第一項 概觀東協 60
第一款 東協之成立與發展 61
第二款 不干預內政原則與東協模式 64
第二項 東協環境法規範體系 65
第一款 簡述東協環境規範體系 66
第二款 東協環境規範中的程序保障 69
第一目 環境計畫 69
第二目 環境決議與宣言 71
第三項 東協決策過程中的程序保障 72
第四項 東協人權保護機制 73
第一款 簡述東協人權保護機制與規範 74
第二款 東協人權宣言與環境相關權利 76
第三節 觀察與分析:東協之程序環境人權發展進程 77
第一項 論述發展呈現分流趨勢 78
第二項 區域組織特性與影響 79
第一款 區域內單一組織運作 79
第二款 東協規範給予國家自由空間 80
第三款 沒有司法機關支撐的救濟權 80
第五章 東協與程序環境人權之發展:反思與提案 82
第一節 比較:歐盟與東協之程序環境人權發展進程 82
第一項 背景:環境相關權利發展背景的異同 82
第二項 趨勢:程序環境人權為主之發展趨勢再確認 84
第三項 區域特色:互動結構的不同 85
第四項 組織特色:規範型態與司法機關的差異 86
第二節 反思:程序環境人權於東協之發展空間 87
第一項 東協整合對發展程序環境人權之影響 87
第一款 驅力:經濟整合驅動環境政策的革新 87
第二款 阻力:東協會員國共識薄弱與公民量能不足 89
第二項 東協定位的調整方向與可能性 93
第一款 諮商與共識模式開啟公民社會參與空間 93
第二款 以柔性規範漸進發展 94
第三款 不干預內政原則的退讓可能 95
第三項 利用東南亞區域其他互動結構之可能性 96
第三節 提案:東協未來發展程序環境人權之最適路徑 98
第一項 組織革新:從設立準司法機關開始 98
第二項 區域互動架構調整:東協+X或東協-X 99
第一款 東協+X:簽署國際公約、強化國際合作 99
第二款 東協-X:限縮議題、泛區域合作 100
第六章 結論 103
參考文獻 106

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呂尚雲(2011)。《國際人權機制對環境議題之回應與啟示》,國立臺灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文(未出版),台北。
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Seda, M. (1993). Global Environmental Concerns and Priorities: Implications for ASEAN. In M. Seda (Ed.), Environmental Management in ASEAN: Perspectives on Critical Regional Issues (pp. 1-54). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
國際公約
ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (1985). Retrieved from http://www.ecolex.org/server2.php/libcat/docs/TRE/Full/En/TRE-000820.txt.
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (1989). Retrieved from http://www.basel.int/portals/4/basel%20convention/docs/text/baselconventiontext-e.pdf.
Basel Protocol on Liability and Compensation for Damage Resulting from Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal (1999). Retrieved from http://www.basel.int/portals/4/basel%20convention/docs/text/baselconventiontext-e.pdf.
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2000). Retrieved from http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cartagena-protocol-en.pdf.
Charter of the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (2007). Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/research/Philippines/ASEAN%20Charter.pdf.
Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union (2009). Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2010:083:0013:0046:en:PDF.
Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2009). Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2010:083:0047:0200:en:PDF.
Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (1998). Retrieved from http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/pp/documents/cep43e.pdf.
Convention on Biological Diversity (1992). Retrieved from http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf.
Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (1991). Retrieved from http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/eia/documents/legaltexts/conventiontextenglish.pdf.
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950). Retrieved from http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx.
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United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982). Retrieved from http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992). Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf.
Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963). Retrieved from http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/1996/inf500.shtml.
World Charter for Nature (1982). Retrieved from http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/37/a37r007.htm.
司法判決
Guerra and Others v. Italy, No. 116/1996/735/932 (Feb 19, 1998). Retrieved from http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-58135.
L. C. B. v. The United Kingdom, No. 14/1997/798/1001 (Jun 9, 1998). Retrieved from http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-58176.
Lopez Ostra v. Spain, Application No. 16798/90 (Dec 9, 1994). Retrieved from http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-57905.
Oneryildiz v. Turkey, Application No. 48939/99 (Nov 30, 2004). Retrieved from http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-67614.
Powell and Rayner v. The United Kingdom, Application No. 9310/81 (Feb 21, 1990). Retrieved from http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-57622.
U.N. Human Rights Committee, E. H. P. v. Canada, Communication No. 67/1980, CCPR/C/17/D/67/1980.
官方文獻
Agenda 21 (1992). Retrieved from http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf.
ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (2012). Retrieved from http://www.asean.org/news/asean-statement-communiques/item/asean-human-rights-declaration.
ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation Work Plan (2007-2017). Retrieved from http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/asean/conference/asean3/plan0711.pdf.
ASEAN Strategic Plan of Action on the Environment (1994-1998). In K. L. Koh (Ed.), ASEAN Environmental Law, Policy and Governance: Selected Documents (pp. 413-468). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
ASEAN Sub-Regional Environmental Program, Phase I (1978-1982). In K. L. Koh (Ed.), ASEAN Environmental Law, Policy and Governance: Selected Documents (pp. 311-336). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
ASEAN Sub-Regional Environmental Program, Phase II (1983-1987). In K. L. Koh (Ed.), ASEAN Environmental Law, Policy and Governance: Selected Documents (pp. 337-386). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
ASEAN Vision 2020 (1997). Retrieved from http://www.asean.org/news/item/asean-vision-2020.
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Bangkok Resolution on ASEAN Environmental Cooperation (2012). Retrieved from http://environment.asean.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/ADOPTED-Bangkok_Resolution_12AMME-26Sep.pdf.
Blueprint for the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (2009-2015). Retrieved from http://www.asean.org/archive/5187-19.pdf.
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Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 3, The Nature of State Parties Obligations (art. 2 para. 1), U.N. Doc. E/1991/23 (1990). Retrieved from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/94bdbaf59b43a424c12563ed0052b664.
Council Directive 90/313/EEC of 7 June 1990 on the freedom of access to information on the environment, 90/313/EEC (1990). Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31990L0313:EN:HTML.
Council Directive of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment, 85/337/EEC (1985). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/full-legal-text/85337.htm.
Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (2003). Retrieved from http://www.mfa.go.th/asean/contents/files/other-20130527-164513-046340.pdf.
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Manila Declaration (1987). Retrieved from http://www.asean.org/news/item/manila-declaration-philippines-15-december-1987.
Manila Declaration on the ASEAN Environment (1981). Retrieved from http://www.eppo.go.th/inter/asean/asean-sec/agrenv81.htm.
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992). Retrieved from http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm.
Singapore Resolution on Environment and Development (1992). Retrieved from http://cil.nus.edu.sg/rp/pdf/1992%20Singapore%20Resolution%20On%20Environment%20And%20Development-pdf.pdf.
Stockholm Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (1972). Retrieved from http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?documentid=97&;articleid=1503.
Terms of Reference of ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (2009). Retrived from http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/research/Philippines/Terms%20of%20Reference%20for%20the%20ASEAN%20Inter-Governmental%20CHR.pdf.
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U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment 31, The Nature of the General Legal Obligation Imposed on States Parties to the Covenant, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add. 13 (2004). Retrieved from http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fC%2f21%2fRev.1%2fAdd.13&;Lang=en.
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment 34, Freedoms of Opinion and Expression (art. 19), U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/GC/34 (2011). Retrieved from http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fC%2fGC%2f34&;Lang=en.
U.N. Human Rights Committee, General Comment 6, The Right to Life (art. 6) (1982). Retrieved from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/84ab9690ccd81fc7c12563ed0046fae3.
Vientiane Action Programme (2004-2010). Retrieved from http://cil.nus.edu.sg/rp/pdf/2004%20Vientiane%20Action%20Programme%202004-2010-pdf.pdf.
網路資源
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (2012). Evolving Towards ASEAN 2015: ASEAN Annual Report 2011-2012. Retrieved from http://www.asean.org/resources/publications/asean-publications/item/asean-annual-report-2011-2012.
Chalermpalanupap, T. (2008). Promoting and Protecting Human Rights in ASEAN. Retrieved from http://www.asean.org/images/archive/HLP-OtherDoc-2.pdf.
Ecolex: The Gateway to Environmental Law, Court Decisions: Record Details. Retrieved from http://www.ecolex.org/ecolex/ledge/view/RecordDetails;DIDPFDSIjsessionid=357D32E14631CAC1BB81A8067C5DA1EC?id=COU-159668&;index=courtdecisions.
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Europa-Summaries of EU Legislation, Application of the Aarhus Convention to the EU Institutions. Retrieved from http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/general_provisions/l28140_en.htm.
Europa-Summaries of EU Legislation, Environment. Retrieved from http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/treaties/amsterdam_treaty/a15000_en.htm.
Europa-Summaries of EU Legislation, Freedom of Access to Information. Retrieved from http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/environment/general_provisions/l28091_en.htm.
European Commission, Environmental Impact Assessment – EIA. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/eia-legalcontext.htm.
U.N. Treaty Collections (2013). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&;mtdsg_no=IV-4&;chapter=4&;lang=en.
U.N. Treaty Collections (2013). International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&;mtdsg_no=IV-3&;chapter=4&;lang=en#5.


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