跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(100.28.2.72) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/16 09:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:周采柔
研究生(外文):Tsai-Jou Chou
論文名稱:鹼處理稻草稈及太陽麻乾草於泌乳羊飼糧之應用
論文名稱(外文):The Application of Alkali-treated Rice Straw and Sunn Hemp as Alternative Forage for Dairy Goats
指導教授:徐濟泰
口試委員:陳靜宜王翰聰魏恆巍
口試日期:2014-07-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物科學技術學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:102
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:鹼處理副產物稻草稈太陽麻乾草泌乳羊
外文關鍵詞:Alkali-treatmentBy-productRice strawSunn hempDairy goat
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:509
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
太陽麻乾草與稻草稈為臺灣常見的綠肥作物與農業副產物,含有豐富的結構性碳水化合物,可作為泌乳羊的能量來源,並提供維持瘤胃功能所需的纖維。鹼處理可使纖維結構變的鬆散,擴大瘤胃纖維分解菌的附著面積,提高反芻動物對植物細胞壁的消化及利用效率。
以乾基5% NaOH與2.5% H2O2 分別對太陽麻乾草與稻草稈進行鹼處理2週後,其體外消化乾物質消化率 ( IVDMD ) 與未處理之太陽麻乾草及稻草稈比較,前者提高15%,後者為63%。將鹼處理及未處理太陽麻乾草與稻草稈依0:100、20:80、40:60、60:40、80:20、100:0比例混合進行體外發酵,總產氣量、IVDMD及中洗纖維消化率 ( IVNDFD ) 測定結果皆隨著鹼處理芻料含量增加而提升。依上述結果採用鹼處理與未處理混合比例為60:40的太陽麻乾草及80:20的稻草稈進行替代性芻料的泌乳羊試驗。
本試驗使用6隻過泌乳高峰經產之阿爾拜因 ( Alpine ) 泌乳山羊,採2重複 3 x 3拉丁方試驗設計,共有3個試驗期 ( 17天適應期、4天採樣期 ),依芻料的種類分為三個處理組:對照組 ( 苜蓿乾草、百慕達草 );稻草處理組 ( 苜蓿乾草、稻草稈 );太陽麻處理組 ( 太陽麻乾草、百慕達草 )。試驗期間,於每日的07:00及19:00進行擠奶與餵飼。
試驗結果顯示,稻草組有最高的乾物質採食量 ( 2136.0 g/head/day ) 但在三處理組間沒有顯著差異;太陽麻處理組的中洗纖維採食量顯著較另外兩組低。表面消化率的部分,太陽麻處理組的乾物質消化率較稻草處理組高,與對照組相似,非纖維性碳水化合物的表面消化率,稻草組較其他兩處理組低。三處理組在乳產量 ( 1962.2、2034.5、1737.5 mL/day ) 及乳組成方面沒有顯著差異,稻草組的乳氮含量顯著高於太陽麻組,氮滯留的部分則沒有出現差異。
綜合以上結果,以含有部分鹼處理的太陽麻乾草與稻草稈分別取代苜蓿乾草及百慕達草餵予泌乳羊,對乾物質採食量及生產表現不會造成負面影響。利用鹼處理方法確實提高纖維性副產物的品質,國產農業副產物經鹼處理後具有作為替代性芻料的潛力。


Sunn hemp ( SH ) and rice straw ( RS ) are common agriculture cover-crop and by-product in Taiwan. They are high in cell wall carbohydrates and can be incorporated into the diet of dairy goats as a source of energy as well as providing the dietary fiber to ensure normal ruminal function. The alkaline hydrogen peroxide ( AHP ) treatment can increase bacterial colonization and adhesion to fiber particles and increase the rate and extent of fiber digestion in the rumen.
Sodium hydroxide and H2O2 were added to the SH and RS at 5.0% and 2.5% of the dry matter, respectively and then set for 2 weeks. The in vitro dry matter digestion ( IVDMD ) of SH and RS was improved 15% and 63% after AHP treatment. Total gas production, IVDMD and neutral detergent fiber digestion ( IVNDFD ) increased, as the percentage of AHP-treated substrate was elevated in incubation. According to the result of in vitro test, we chosed the ratio of AHP-treated: untreated of SH and RS as 60:40 and 80:20 in dairy goat feeding study.
Six multiparous Alpine goats in mid-lactation were used in two replications of 3 x 3 Latin square design. Each experiment period included 21 day, the first 17 d were used for adjustment to diets followed by 4 d of sample and data collection. There were 3 treatment diets: control ( alfalfa hay, bermudagrass ), rice straw ( alfalfa hay, rice straw ), and sun hemp ( sunn hemp, bermudagrass ). Goats were fed and milked daily at 0700 and 1900 during the trial.
Goats in RS group had the highest dry matter intake ( 2136.0 g/head/day ), but there were no significant different among three treatment groups. The neutral detergent fiber ( NDF ) intake of SH group was less than the other groups. Sunn hemp group had higher dry matter digestibility than rice straw group, however, no significantly different to control group. Rice straw group had the lowest non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility. There was no significant difference observed in milk yields among control, RS and SH groups ( 1962.2, 2034.5, 1737.5 mL/day ), milk composition and N retention among three treatment groups.
In conclusion, there was no negative effect on dry matter intake and performance of dairy goats when replacing alfalfa hay with sunn hemp, or bermudagrass with rice straw. AHP-treatment actually improves the quality of alternative forages. And it proves that, domestic agriculture cover-crop and by-products have potential as the alternative forage for ruminants after pretreatment.


圖次………………………..……………………………………………...Ⅱ
表次………………………………..……………………………………...Ⅲ
中文摘要.………………………………………………………………...Ⅳ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………....Ⅵ
前言…………………………………………………………………….....1
文獻探討……………………………………………….………………...2
材料方法…………………………………………………….….………..22
結果討論…………………………………………………………..……..46
結論……………………………………………………………….……....69
參考文獻………………………………………………………….……...70

王&;#21894;宣。2009。多年生花生、花生藤及太陽麻於替代泌乳羊芻料之應用。國立臺灣大學動物科學技術學研究所碩士論文。
胡同嘉。2011。不同成熟度太陽麻或花生藤分別和玉米混合製作青貯替代泌乳羊芻料之應用。國立臺灣大學動物科學技術學研究所碩士論文。
行政院農業委員會。2012。101年農業統計年報。
沈明來。2010。試驗設計學第四版。九州圖書文化有限公司。
吳正宗、陳仁炫。2006。綠肥作物栽培手冊。行政院農業委員會農糧署。
信富食油行。http://newandrich.wordpress.com/
楊价民。1997。瘤胃生態系統與反芻動物對養分的利用。藝軒圖書出版社。
鄭梨櫻. 2010. 台灣綠肥作物種類與應用. 臺中區農業改良場特刊: 431-433.
Abouheif, M. A., Y. Mohamed, Al-Saiady, I. Saud. Al-Mufarrej , M. Aziz , A. Hafiz, Ibrahim and Riyadh S. Aljumaah. 2012. Effect of physical form of diet and frequency of feeding on digesta retention time and digestion in Najdi lambs. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 11: 1774-1779.
Al-Suwaiegh, S., K. Fanning, R. Grant, C. Milton, and T. J. Klopfenstein. 2002. Utilization of distillers grains from the fermentation of sorghum or corn in diets for finishing beef and lactating dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Science 80: 1105-1111.
Allen, M. S. 1996. Physical constraints on voluntary intake of forages by ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 74: 3063-3075.
Alwash, A., and P. Thomas. 1971. The effect of the physical form of the diet and the level of feeding on the digestion of dried grass by sheep. Journal of the Science of Eood and Agriculture 22: 611-615.
Association of official Analytical Chemists. 2000. Officail Method of Analysis. 18th Ed Association of official
Analytical Chemists. AOAC International, Arllington,
Virginia, USA.
Bastawde, K. 1992. Xylan structure, microbial xylanases, and their mode of action. World journal of microbiology and biotechnology 8: 353-368.
Belibasakis, N., and D. Tsirgogianni. 1996. Effects of wet brewers grains on milk yield, milk composition and blood components of dairy cows in hot weather. Animal Feed Science and Technology 57: 175-181.
Beuvink, J., and S. Spoelstra. 1992. Interactions between substrate, fermentation end-products, buffering systems and gas production upon fermentation of different carbohydrates by mixed rumen microorganisms in vitro. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 37: 505-509.
Bierman, S. J. 1995. Nutritional Effects on Waste Management. MS thesis. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr.
Bilba, K., H. Savastano Junior, and K. Ghavami. 2013. Treatments of non-wood plant fibres used as reinforcement in composite materials. Materials Research 16: 903-923.
Borchers, R. 1977. Allantoin determination. Analytical Biochemistry 79: 612-613.
Bowman, J., and J. Firkins. 1993. Effects of forage species and particle size on bacterial cellulolytic activity and colonization in situ. Journal of Animal Science 71: 1623-1633.
Bradford, M. M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72: 248-254.
Buxton, D. R., and D. D. Redfearn. 1997. Plant limitations to fiber digestion and utilization. The Journal of Nutrition 127: 814S-818S.
Cameron, M., G. Fahey, J. Clark, N. Merchen, and L. Berger. 1991. Effects of feeding alkaline hydrogen peroxide-treated wheat straw-based diets on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and production responses by mid-lactation dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 69: 1775-1787.
Carro, M., S. Lopez, J. Gonzalez, and F. Ovejero. 1994. Comparison of laboratory methods for predicting digestibility of hay in sheep. Small Ruminant Research 14: 9-17.
Chabannes, M., K. Ruel, A. Yoshinaga, B. Chabbert, A. Jauneau, J.P. Joseleau and A. M. Boudet. 2001. In situ analysis of lignins in transgenic tobacco reveals a differential impact of individual transformations on the spatial patterns of lignin deposition at the cellular and subcellular levels. The Plant Journal 28: 271-282.
Chaudhry, A. 2000. Rumen degradation in sacco in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide plus hydrogen peroxide. Animal Feed Science and Technology 83: 313-323.
Coelho, M., F. Hembry, F. Barton, and A. Saxton. 1988. A comparison of microbial, enzymatic, chemical and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy methods in forage evaluation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 20: 219-231.
Cole, N. A. 1999. Nitrogen retention by lambs fed oscillating dietary protein concentrations. Journal of Animal Science 77: 215-222.
Crooker, B., C. Sniffen, W. Hoover, and L. Johnson. 1978. Solvents for soluble nitrogen measurements in feedstuffs. Journal of Dairy Science 61: 437-447.
Dado, R., and M. Allen. 1995. Intake limitations, feeding behavior, and rumen function of cows challenged with rumen fill from dietary fiber or inert bulk. Journal of Dairy Science 78: 118-133.
De Boever, J., B. Cottyn, F. Buysse, F. Wainman, and J. Vanacker. 1986. The use of an enzymatic technique to predict digestibility, metabolizable and net energy of compound feedstuffs for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology 14: 203-214.
Dewhurst, R., D. Hepper, and A. Webster. 1995. Comparison of in sacco and in vitro techniques for estimating the rate and extent of rumen fermentation of a range of dietary ingredients. Animal Feed Science and Technology 51: 211-229.
Djajanegara, A., B. Molina, and P. Doyle. 1985. The utilization of untreated and calcium hydroxide treated wheat straw by sheep. Animal Feed Science and Technology 12: 141-150.
Doner, L. W., and K. B. Hicks. 1997. Isolation of hemicellulose from corn fiber by alkaline hydrogen peroxide extraction. Cereal Chemistry 74: 176-181.
Dowman, M. G., and F. C. Collins. 1982. The use of enzymes to predict the digestibility of animal feeds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 33: 689-696.
Freeman, S., M. Poore, G. Huntington, and T. Middleton. 2008. Evaluation of secondary protein nutrients as a substitute for soybean meal in diets for beef steers and meat goats. Journal of Animal Science 86: 146-158.
Gandhi, J., and M. Holtzapple. 1998. Calcium hydroxide treatment of millet straw to improve its rumen digestibility. Animal Production in Australia 22: 122-124.
Getachew, G., M. Blummel, H. Makkar, and K. Becker. 1998. In vitro gas measuring techniques for assessment of nutritional quality of feeds: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 72: 261-281.
Groot, J. C., J. W. Cone, B. A. Williams, F. Debersaques, and E. A. Lantinga. 1996. Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 64: 77-89.
Guggolz, J., R. Saunders, G. Kohler, and T. Klopfenstein. 1971. Enzymatic evaluation of processes for improving agricultural wastes for ruminant feeds. Journal of Animal Science 33: 167-170.
Haddad, S., R. Grant, and T. Klopfenstein. 1994. Digestibility of alkali-treated wheat straw measured in vitro or in vivo using Holstein heifers. Journal of Animal Science 72: 3258-3265.
Hendriks, A., and G. Zeeman. 2009. Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technology 100: 10-18.
Illius, A., and N. Jessop. 1996. Metabolic constraints on voluntary intake in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 74: 3052-3062.
Ishiwaki, N., H. Murayama, H. Awayama, O. Kanauchi, and T. Sato. 2000. Development of high value uses of spent grain by fractionation technology. Technical quarterly-Master Brewers Association of the Americas 37: 261-265.
Ishler, V., and G. Varga. 2001. Carbohydrate nutrition for lactating dairy cattle. Department of Dairy and Animal Science. The Pennsilvania State University, Code #: DAS 01-29, pp: 1-11.
Israilides, C., G. Grant, and Y. Han. 1978. Sugar level, fermentability, and acceptability of straw treated with different acids. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 36: 43-46.
Jackson, M. 1977. Review article: the alkali treatment of straws. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2: 105-130.
Jung, H., and M. Allen. 1995. Characteristics of plant cell walls affecting intake and digestibility of forages by ruminants. Journal of Animal Science 73: 2774-2790.
Jung, H. G., and D. A. Deetz. 1993. Cell wall lignification and degradability. In: H. G. Jung, D. R. Buxton, R. D. Hatfield, and J. Ralph (Ed.) Forage Cell Wall Structure and Digestibility. p 315. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI.
Kammes, K., and M. Allen. 2012. Nutrient demand interacts with grass particle length to affect digestion responses and chewing activity in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 95: 807-823.
Karunanandaa, K., and G. Varga. 1996. Colonization of crop residues by white-rot fungi: cell wall monosaccharides, phenolic acids, ruminal fermentation characteristics and digestibility of cell wall fiber components in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology 63: 273-288.
Kendall, C., C. Leonardi, P. Hoffman, and D. Combs. 2009. Intake and milk production of cows fed diets that differed in dietary neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Journal of Dairy Science 92: 313-323.
Kerley, M., G. Fahey Jr, L. Berger, J. M. Gould, and L. Baker. 1985. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment unlocks energy in agricultural by-products. Science 230: 820-822.
Khare, S., K. Jha, and A. Gandhi. 1995. Citric acid production from okara (soy-residue) by solid-state fermentation. Bioresource Technology 54: 323-325.
Klemm, D., B. Heublein, H. P. Fink, and A. Bohn. 2005. Cellulose: fascinating biopolymer and sustainable raw material. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 44: 3358-3393.
Klopfenstein, T. 1978. Chemical treatment of crop residues. Journal of Animal Science 46: 841-848.
Kohn, R., M. Dinneen, and E. Russek-Cohen. 2005. Using blood urea nitrogen to predict nitrogen excretion and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, and rats. Journal of Animal Science 83: 879-889.
Kononoff, P., A. Heinrichs, and H. Lehman. 2003. The effect of corn silage particle size on eating behavior, chewing activities, and rumen fermentation in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86: 3343-3353.
Krause, K., D. Combs, and K. Beauchemin. 2002. Effects of forage particle size and grain fermentability in midlactation cows. II. Ruminal pH and chewing activity. Journal of Dairy Science 85: 1947-1957.
Maeng, W., and T. Chung. 1989. Nutritive values and growth response of cattle fed ammonia treated rice straw. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences: 1-6.
Makkar, H., O. Sharma, R. Dawra, and S. Negi. 1982. Simple determination of microbial protein in rumen liquor. Journal of Dairy Science 65: 2170-2173.
Mansoer, Z., D. W. Reeves, and C. Wood. 1997. Suitability of sunn hemp as an alternative late-summer legume cover crop. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61: 246-253.
McAllister, T., H. Bae, G. Jones, and K. Cheng. 1994. Microbial attachment and feed digestion in the rumen. Journal of Animal Science 72: 3004-3018.
Mehrez, A., and E. Orskov. 1977. A study of artificial fibre bag technique for determining the dig estibility of feeds in the rumen. The Journal of Agricultural Science 88: 645-650.
Menke, K., L. Raab, A. Salewski, H. Steingass, D. Fritz and W. Schneider. 1979. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedingstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. The Journal of Agricultural Science 93: 217-222.
Mirzaei-Aghsaghali, A., and N. Maheri-Sis. 2008. Nutritive value of some agro-industrial by-products for ruminants-A review. World Journal of Zoology 3: 40-46.
Mishra, A., O.H. Chaturvedi, A. Khali, R. Prasad, A Santra, A.K. Misra, S. Parthasarathy, R.C. Jakhmola. 2000. Effect of sodium hydroxide and alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment on physical and chemical characteristics and IVOMD of mustard straw. Animal Feed Science and Technology 84: 257-264.
Mtui, G. Y. 2009. Recent advances in pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes and production of value added products. African Journal of Biotechnology 8.
Ngongoni, N., M. Mwale, C. Mapiye, M. T. Moyo, H. Hamudikuwanda and M. Titterton. 2007. Evaluation of cereal-legume intercropped forages for smallholder dairy production in Zimbabwe. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 19, Article #129. Retrieved August 22, 2014, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/9/ngon19129.htm.
Nitipot, P., and K. Sommart. 2003. Evaluation of ruminant nutritive value of cassava starch industry by products, energy feed sources and roughages using in vitro gas production technique. In: Proceeding of Annual Agricultural Seminar for Year. p 27-28.
NRC. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Oba, M., and M. Allen. 1999. Effects of brown midrib 3 mutation in corn silage on dry matter intake and productivity of high yielding dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 82: 135-142.
Ololade, B., and D. Mowat. 1975. Influence of whole-plant barley reconstituted with sodium hydroxide on digestibility, rumen fluid and plasma metabolism of sheep. Journal of Animal Science 40: 351-357.
Orskov, E. 1993. Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in predicting feed intake in cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology 40: 109-119.
Perez, J., J. Munoz-Dorado, T. de la Rubia, and J. Martinez. 2002. Biodegradation and biological treatments of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin: an overview. International Microbiology 5: 53-63.
Ratanakhanokchai, K., R. Waeonukul, P. Pason, C. Tachaapaikoon, K. L. Kyu, K. Sakka, A. Kosugi and Y. Mori. 2013. Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus Strain B-6 multienzyme complex: A novel system for biomass utilization. In Biomass Now - Cultivation and Utilization, edited by Miodrag Darko Matovic.
Ross, J., J. Spears, and J. Garlich. 1994. Dietary electrolyte balance effects on performance and metabolic characteristics in growing steers. Journal of Animal Science 72: 1842-1848.
Russell, J. B., and J. L. Rychlik. 2001. Factors that alter rumen microbial ecology. Science 292: 1119-1122.
Sudekum, K. H., F. Brusemeister, A. Schroder, and M. Stangassinger. 2006. Effects of amount of intake and stage of forage maturity on urinary allantoin excretion and estimated microbial crude protein synthesis in the rumen of steers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 90: 136-145.
Slyter, L. L. 1986. Ability of pH-selected mixed ruminal microbial populations to digest fiber at various pHs. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 52: 390-391.
Stevens, J., K. Anderson, M. Correa, T. Stewart, and W. Braselton. 1994. Hematologic, blood gas, blood chemistry, and serum mineral values for a sample of clinically healthy adult goats. Veterinary Clinical Pathology 23: 19-24.
Su, A.-K., and H.-C. Station. 1996. Utilization of agricultural by-products in Taiwan. http://www.fftc.agnet.org/ library/article/eb422.html; pp. 1-6.
Sun, R., J. Tomkinson, P. Ma, and S. Liang. 2000. Comparative study of hemicelluloses from rice straw by alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatments. Carbohydrate Polymers 42: 111-122.
Sun, R., J. Tomkinson, F. Mao, and X. Sun. 2001. Physicochemical characterization of lignins from rice straw by hydrogen peroxide treatment. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79: 719-732.
Sun, Y., and J. Cheng. 2002. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresource Technology 83: 1-11.
Sung, H. G., Y. Kobayashi, J. Chang, A. Ha, I. H. Hwang, and J. K. Ha. 2007. Low ruminal pH reduces dietary fiber digestion via reduced microbial attachment. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science. 20: 200-207
Tejada, M., J. Gonzalez, A. Garcia-Martinez, and J. Parrado. 2008. Application of a green manure and green manure composted with beet vinasse on soil restoration: Effects on soil properties. Bioresource Technology 99: 4949-4957.
Tilley, J., and R. Terry. 1963. A two&;#8208;stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass and Forage Science 18: 104-111.
Tomme, P., R. Warren, and N. Gilkes. 1995. Cellulose hydrolysis by bacteria and fungi. Advances in Microbial Physiology 37: 1-81.
Van der Riet, W., A. Wight, J. Cilliers, and J. Datel. 1989. Food chemical investigation of tofu and its byproduct okara. Food Chemistry 34: 193-202.
Van Milgen, J., L. L. Berger, and M. R. Murphy. 1993. An integrated, dynamic model of feed hydration anddigestion, and subsequent bacterial mass accumulation in the rumen. British Journal of Nutrition 70: 471-483.
Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, United States.
Van Soest, P. v., J. Robertson, and B. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 3583-3597.
Voigt, J., and B. Piatkowski. 1974. Untersuchungen zum Aufschlus von Getreidestroh. Archives of Animal Nutrition 24: 589-599.
Wanapat, M., and A. Cherdthong. 2009. Use of real-time PCR technique in studying rumen cellulolytic bacteria population as affected by level of roughage in swamp buffalo. Current Microbiology 58: 294-299.
Wanapat, M., S. Polyorach, K. Boonnop, C. Mapato, and A. Cherdthong. 2009. Effects of treating rice straw with urea or urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows. Livestock Science 125: 238-243.
Wang, H.L., and Cavins, J.F. 1989. Yield and amino acid composition of fractions obtained during tofu production. Cereal Chemistry. 66: 359-361.
Weimer, P. J. 1996. Why don’t ruminal bacteria digest cellulose faster? Journal of Dairy Science 79: 1496-1502.
Westendorf, M. L., and J. E. Wohlt. 2002. Brewing by-products: Their use as animal feeds. Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 18: 233-252.
Wilson, R., and W. Pigden. 1964. Effect of a sodium hydroxide treatment on the utilization of wheat straw and poplar wood by rumen microorganisms. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 44: 122-123.
Wolin, M. J. 1960. A theoretical rumen fermentation balance. Journal of Dairy Science 43: 1452-1459.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊